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Carl Zeiss - A History Of A Most Respected Name In Optics
Preface: going on-line in 1994 this is among the first and earliest on line articles about Carl Zeiss, and is written entirely with a simple text editor. It is produced and hosted as another way of expressing gratitude to those who have helped Company Seven prosper. With some of this content dating back to the times when slow dial-up Internet access was the norm, the article was originally text heavy because illustrations were by necessity kept simple and to a minimum. Over the decades we have, and will continue to, on occasion add this or that mention of or illustration of items in our archives and museum collection, this to break up the monotony of text, make corrections (with much gratitude to Dr. Wolfgang Wimmer, Director of Carl Zeiss Archives), clarify, or expand content. It was never our intent to write one comprehensive and all-encompassing history of Zeiss, that would require volumes to do it justice, but rather to explain why we at Company Seven remain grateful for and in awe of the achievements by Zeiss.
The Founders And The Zeiss Company Foundations:
From its inception through to the middle 19th century, lens making was a craft that was essentially passed on from generation to generation. Innovations had typically resulted from trial and error experimentation; this was a costly and time consuming process that could not factor in all of the possible variables in lens making materials and design. It would be left up to one who could employ scientific methods of study, and then devise the mathematical formulas to characterize the physics of optics to make the next important technological leaps possible. It would then be asked of a chemist to invent and manufacture those raw materials necessary to make the new designs possible. And it would be one man to bring this combination together to create a concern of unrivaled accomplishment.
Right: Carl Friedrich Zeiss (23,218 bytes).
Carl Friedrich Zeiss (b. 11 September 1816 in Weimar - d. 3 December 1888 in Jena) grew up apprenticed in the shop of Dr. Friedrich Körner, becoming well familiar with the operation of fine tools and machinery that were used to make microscopes and other scientific instruments. Körner was a machinist who provided such instruments to the German court. Zeiss attended lectures at the University of Jena where he studied mathematics, physics, anthropology, mineralogy, and optics. He traveled as a journeyman for some years and completed his practicals (exams) at the Physiological Institute in Jena under Professor Schleiden.
On 10 May 1846 Carl Zeiss submitted the required application to the Weimar authority where he requested permission to open a mechanical workshop. After his application was approved, on 17 November 1846 Carl Zeiss opened his workshop in a four story building located at Neugasse 7 in Jena. This is near the Saale River in the district of Thuringia in Germany. Here he commenced production of simple microscopes, measuring instruments, and other precise optical and mechanical instruments. In the first year of operation he sold twenty-three microscopes, not bad considering the state of the economy at the time and that his name was not yet well known.
Left: the first workshop at Neugasse 7 to the left of the frame, bearing the name Carl Zeiss. Photo taken in 1847 (122,034 bytes).
In September 1847 Zeiss moved to a larger facility at Wagnergasse 32 and hired his first apprentice. Among his customers was the University of Jena for whom he made and repairs scientific equipment. Zeiss began to make improvements in microscopes, offering simple microscopes and in 1857 introducing the first compound microscope (employing both an objective lens and an eyepiece), the “Stand I”. In 1861 Zeiss compound microscopes are declared to be “among the most excellent instruments made in Germany” and he is awarded a Gold medal at the Thuringian Industrial Exhibition.
By 1864 the workshop, now with some two hundred employees, was moved to a third and even larger facility at Johannisplatz 10.
In 1866 the 1,000th new Carl Zeiss microscope is delivered; the Carl Zeiss shop is now recognized throughout European scientific circles for the fine qualities of its microscopes.
Above: Carl Zeiss Jena microscope Nr. 602/1291. The 1291st microscope, and their 602nd compound instrument made by Zeiss.
The smallest Zeiss compound microscope of the time, this is a stand Vb model with lens A or C and the eyepiece 2. This was delivered new in 1868
to Max Johann Sigismund Schultze, (March 25, 1825 - January 16, 1874) a microscopic anatomist noted for his work in Greifswald on cell theory.
From Company Sevens collection, presently displayed at our showroom museum - and its clarity of view is still amazing (image 57,655 bytes).
Click on image to see enlarged view in png format (988,796 bytes).
Company Seven has few resources in our archives to indicate whether or not Carl Zeiss had adopted any company trademark or not when the company commenced production. The earliest example we own of any item identified as having been made by Zeiss is the compound microscope shown above. This instrument does bear the simple “C Zeiss Jena” engraving on the slide Stage. On the Stage top and to the left of the company name are also engraved the microscope production and the series (compound microscope) serial numbers too.
Right: C Zeiss Jena company trade name engraved on Stage of microscope Nr. 602/1291. Exhibited at Company Seven (47,426 bytes).
Ernst Abbe: up to this time advances in optical designs and materials relied heavily on inefficient trail and error efforts. Realizing that the improvement of optical instruments demanded advances in optical theory (Zeiss noted “the only remaining function of the working hand should be that of precisely implementing the forms and dimensions of all construction elements as determined by the design computation”), Zeiss engaged Ernst Abbe (b. 23 January 1840 in Eisenach, Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach - d. 14 January 1905 in Jena) as a free-lance research worker when he was a twenty-six years young lecturer of physics and mathematics at the University of Jena. It was Abbe who would become Zeiss partner and help launch the name Zeiss into the stratosphere of optics.
Left: Ernst Abbe (24,706 bytes).
Many of those who would become the most successful minds in optics were taught at the University at Jena, and then employed at the Zeiss Works. Ernst Abbe was without doubt a most gifted individual whose accomplishments place him in that rare category of person who can be said to have a profound impact on the rapid evolution of many optical theories and products.
Abbe grew up in poverty, his father Georg Adam Abbe was a foreman in a spinning mill and worked as much as sixteen hours a day to support his family. Abbe earned his way through school in Eisenach by gaining scholarships, and with some assistance from his fathers employer. As an undergraduate Abbe studied physics and mathematics at the University of Jena (1857-1859). He went to graduate school at the University of Göttingen (1859-1861) where on 23 March 1861 he received a Doctorate in thermodynamics with the thesis “Erfahrungsmäßige Begründung des Satzes von der Äquivalenz zwischen Wärme und Mechanischer Arbeit” (Experiential Justification of the Set of the Equivalence between Heat and Mechanical Work). Abbe was employed for brief terms first as an assistant at the at the observatory in Göttingen, then the Physikalischen Verein in Frankfurt am Main (Physics Association in Frankfurt). In August 1863 Abbe joined the faculty at the University of Jena where he lectured on physics and mathematics, and later where he would serve his professorship. In 1866 Abbe was introduced to Carl Zeiss who was manufacturing microscopes and other instruments for clients including the University, Abbe became very interested in the optical challenges facing microscopy. Late in 1866 Zeiss and Abbe formed a partnership where Abbe became the director of research of the Zeiss Optical Works. Abbe laid out the framework of what would become the modern computational optics development approach. By 1869 their work produced a new patented illumination device, which provide illumination of the objects studied under a microscope in a manner superior to that of previous systems.
Among Abbes most significant breakthroughs was the formulation in 1872 of a wave theory of microscopic imaging that became known as the “Abbe Sine Condition”. This approach made possible the development of a new range of seventeen microscope objectives - three of these were of the immersion type, all were designed based on mathematical modeling. In Abbes words:
every curvature, every thickness, every aperture of a lens - so that any trial and error approach is excluded.”
As mentioned above, prior to the work of Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe lenses were made by trial and error and by repeating past proven glass and lens prescriptions. However, these objectives were the first lenses ever made that were designed based on sound optical theory considering the laws of physics. The comparatively high performance of the new Zeiss microscope objectives earned for the company international acclaim as an innovator capable of devising high performance optical products.
Abbes early ideas did not always advance the state of the art, one of his first calculated microscope designs proved to be inferior to that already being produced by Zeiss. This caused Ernst Abbe to redouble his efforts and resulted in his theory of image formation in the microscope, and formula for predicting the maximum achievable microscopic resolving power. This was so important an accomplishment that it was among the factors that led Carl Zeiss to partnering with Abbe on 22 July 1887, though this was backdated to 15 May 1875.
By 1879 there were four manufacturers who were rated by the microscopy community as pre-eminent in the field: C. A. Spencer and Sons of Geneva, New York (the first notable maker of microscopes in the Americas), Robert B. Tolles of Boston, Powell & Leland of England, and Carl Zeiss in Germany.
In 1881 Carl Zeisss son Roderich would become a co-partner in the Zeiss concerns.
Otto Schott (b. 17 December 1851 Witten - d. 27 August 1935) grew up in a family that introduced him to making window glass, his father became a co-owner of a glassworks in Westphalia in 1853. He became the father of modern glass science and technology. Schott left home after gaining a masterly understanding of the state of the art to study chemical technology at the technical college in Aachen, and later at the universities of Wijrzbur and Leipzig. Schott later earned his Doctorate at the University of Jena in 1875 for his work about defects in window glass manufacturing. In late 1879, Schott wrote to Ernst Abbe describing his success in devising a technique to formulate a new glass that incorporated lithium, and later Schott sent a sample of this glass to Abbe. Schotts work in his native town of Witten had by 1881 resulted in glass products with optical properties that up to that time had been unknown.
Right: Otto Schott (22,413 bytes).
On 4 January 1881 Schott met with Dr. Abbe who encouraged Schott to employ a scientific approach to the determination of raw ingredients to be used in glass formulations, and the development of manufacturing techniques of what would lead to the development of more than one hundred new types of optical and industrial glasses. Together Schott and Abbe would also work to improve the raw materials mixing and glass annealing processes. In 1882 Schott moved to a new glass-making laboratory set up for him in Jena. In 1884 Schott together with Carl and Roderich Zeiss, and with Ernst Abbe founded the Glastechnisches Laboratorium Schott & Genossen to develop new types of optical and heat resistant glass. Later this later became the Glaswerke Schott & Genossen.
Schott developed many new glass types, a number of which are still in use including Borosilicate Crown that is also known as a BK glass. Schotts glass innovation made possible the introduction by Zeiss in 1886 of the first “apochromate” lens, a lens with improved color correction. His company pioneered not only new glass types but new uses, including “Jenare Glass” a domestic glassware line, and glassware for laboratory and industrial uses. He would become involved with social concerns, being elected to city council of Jena where he served from 1896 to 1899. Schott retired from his day to day activities in the glass works in 1926.
This collaboration resulted in the Jena Glass Works of Schott becoming the prime source of glass and filter materials for Zeiss products. This research and development effort bore its first noteworthy fruit in 1886 when Zeiss marketed the first “apochromate” microscope objectives; this apochromatic microscope objective offered superior quality. Employing “fluorspar” elements this was the first use of crystal in an industrial optical application.
Landmarks And Transitions
By this time Zeiss microscopes and other instruments were well enough regarded to rate international representation. In the United States for example Francis J. Emmerich, originally at Maiden Lane by 1872, then Francis J. Emmerich & Son at 138 Fulton Street, New York City, and by 1889 at 43 Barclay Street, New York City, imported and distributed Carl Zeiss instruments during the 1880s until the death of the elder Emmerich in 1892.
The Zeiss company delivers its 10,000th new microscope! The founder Carl Zeiss lives to see this breakthrough, but soon afterward he died on 3 December 1888. This left Ernst Abbe as the sole owner of the company then with 250 employees and craftsmen.
In 1889 the Zeiss company publishes its Catalogue No. 28 describing their microscopes product line containing, per F. J. Emmerich Sr., “many new apparatus and improvements of importance.” He had some experience with an attempted fraud by Heinrich Hensoldt (b. 1856 – d. ca. 1918), and other attempts to pass inferior products on as Zeiss, so Emmerich went on to elaborate:
Flatteringly enough, counterfeiting of Zeiss products would continue even into the 21st century particularly when involving antique items or binoculars that resemble those made by Carl Zeiss Jena.
The Stiftung And Corporate Ideals
Abbe was interested in improving academic and research resources. His efforts resulted in the establishment of Institutes for Applied Physics and Applied Chemistry at the University of Jena. Abbe was also interested in social reforms culminating in the formation in 1889 of the “Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung” (Stiftung is the German term for an entity akin to a Foundation) to operate the various Zeiss concerns, with a mission to ensure the Zeiss firm follows the social vision of its founders. By 1889 there were some 350 employees and workers affiliated with the Zeiss company and foundation. The independence of the “Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung” was formalized in 1891 as Abbe (and later Roderich Zeiss) bequeathed his shares in the Zeiss Optical Works factory and the Schott Glassworks to the “Stiftung”.
The original constitution of the Stiftung provides that the profits of the Zeiss firms finance the growth and stability of the firms. The remainder of the profits are allocated to the foundation, that makes grants for: scientific research, cultural activities, and employee benefits programs. The number of employees, craftsmen, and workers enjoying the working conditions at Zeiss had grown to 520.
Some 685 personnel celebrated the 50th anniversary of the founding of Zeiss in 1896. This was nearly double the number of people there just seven years before, and the employment rolls would more than double again to 1,450 by 1905.
By 1900 the employment benefits at Zeiss were uncommonly good in their day, these included: an eight-hour work day, paid holidays, some forms of health benefits, profit-sharing, and retirement. It is our understanding that one provision of the Stiftung Statutes was that the top salaries at Zeiss could not exceed the average income of the workers by more than a factor of ten. Such concerns of employees well being was rare at the time, but it was returned to the company with increased employee loyalty and by attracting better-qualified candidates for employment.
In 1923 Schott also added his shares in the Glass Works to the Foundation.
Optical Technology Innovations Blossom
Carl Zeiss Jena that was originally founded on the production of microscopes continued to increase the diversity of their models, and the company advanced microscope technology. In 1892 Horatio S. Greenough, an American biologist suggested a promising concept for Abbe, by the end of 1897 the first stereomicroscope ever made providing true three-dimensional views was completed at Zeiss. The arrangement became known as a “Greenough Optical Train” that at first glance appears to be two microscope optical assemblies, each complete with its own objective lens and eyepiece but paired and aligned alongside. This differs from a binocular microscope that has only one objective lens focused on the object of study, and that incorporates a beam splitter that splits that light from the image then feeds it on to two eyepieces to attain binocular vision.
Right: Carl Zeiss Jena Greenough Optical Train stereo microscope (21,613 bytes). Note the cylindrical prisms housings, these correct the orientation of the image that otherwise would be upside down and reversed left to right.
As Zeiss had proved how math and physics played key roles in developing optics, and Carl Zeiss Jena attracted mathematicians (some attracted through Abbe’s teaching work) and physicists like a magnet. Zeiss was developing experience and expertise so quickly, and had access to innovations of glass technologies if not calling for new glasses to be made, so that their engineers could adapt to new requirements sooner than most others in the photographic market. If an engineer had been working on a new idea and came up against some limit regarding lack of a glass with certain properties then he might ask Schott to look into making a new glass. If the glass was not available until a decade or more later, then Zeiss archives and files might contain prior research work that would help someone else, if not the author, resume work when a new suitable glass was developed. Or, a shelved effort might be resurrected and applied to an entirely new optical product.
In Photography: photography too became a major factor in the increasing success of Carl Zeiss. There were many opportunities for new photographic products, especially since Kodak and others were marketing more manageable and simpler to use film cameras geared for consumers. A camera needed basic components: a lens (Zeiss designed and made these), a shutter mechanism (Abbe designed and patented), and film (no, Zeiss did not make that). Since every camera needed at least one lens this was a major market opportunity, and this is one that Zeiss came well prepared to meet. Zeiss developed lenses introducing them with names some that remain respected today by their modern descendants,
It was a Zeiss physicist, Paul Rudolph (b. 14 November 1858 - d. 8 March 1935), who led the effort to develop the worlds first anastigmat (or anastigmatic) lens. Every photo lens made prior to this would image in a way that photographs taken with them, under close inspection, would show one or more defects (termed aberrations in optics). The “anastigmat” was the first among a series of lenses designed for film photography that corrected astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration. The correction of chromatism, false color that appears as a halo of violet or crimson where contrasting colors meet caused as wavelengths of light passing through glass are shifted, was less of a concern with shorter focal length lenses but improvements in glass technology to solve this in longer lenses would come later. The first of these anastigmat lenses was the Protar of 1890. This would be followed in 1895 with the Planar, the Unar of 1899, the Tessar of 1902 so sharp that it was marketed as the “Eagles Eye”, the Plasmat of 1918.
Each innovation solved new problem or improved on performance over a prior generation; a lens might be developed for uses to cover larger and larger film formats, or a newer lens might allow faster focal ratios to shorten exposure time or reduce depth of field to increase artistic capabilities. For the consumer market a Zeiss camera or lens might have been their first introduction to the qualities of craftsmanship and performance there was coming from Carl Zeiss in Jena.
Zeiss had the means and the business acumen to know when it was time to compete, or time to acquire, and Zeiss also knew when to cooperate. By the turn of the century Zeiss lenses designs were so advanced and the name so well regarded that several of these designs were licensed by manufacturing companies overseas. Zeiss developed especially good relations with Bausch & Lomb of Rochester, New York, and Ross of London that would lead to cooperation in other areas too including binocular production.
Zeiss commenced making acquisitions to strengthen its position in the respective markets. In 1902 Zeiss acquired a local recent startup Palmos A.G. who was known for their Stereokamera and their Palmos 6x9 format camera, and this facility continued production as Aktiengesellschaft Camerawerk Palmos. The growth of opportunity was so extensive in the blossoming photography market that improved cooperation would be beneficial to sustain growth and innovation. So in 1909 and agreement was reached between four major German camera makers to form a new concern, Internationale Camera Aktiengesellschaft (ICA) based in Dresden. The shares of Ica were owned by the contributing companies who were:
ICA products and literature were marketed as either Internationale Camera Aktiengesellschaft, ICA, Ica, or Ica-Contessa. In 1912 the G. Zulauf & Co. of Zurich joined the concern. Another well regarded manufacturer had entered into discussions, but the privately owned Heinrich Ernemann AG of Dresden elected to remain independent.
By 1914 Zeiss had become the worlds largest company involved in camera production with dozens of brands and factories, involved in production for that market at Jena, Dresden, and later in Stuttgart and Berlin. This would lead to great accomplishments and many innovative products bearing distinguished legacies, these would include Zeiss Ikon formed in 1926. The famous Contax brand would come about in 1932 under the tenure of Dr. Ing. Heinz Küppenbender.
Porro Prisms And Binoculars: among the first notable optical accomplishments by the Zeiss works were that by 1870 Abbe had independently reinvented image erecting Porro prisms (sometimes referred to as the “Porro-Abbe” design), and by 1873 a prototype instrument had been completed. However, due to the limitations imposed by available crown glass at the time Abbe did not proceed much further until later. The original prism design was developed by an Italian Ignazio Porro (1801-1875). By 1888 Schott improved the optical characteristics of Crown glass such that Abbe resurrected an earlier project, by 1893 he had created and patented (back dated to July 9 at the German Imperial Patent Office) a 8x 20mm “binocular telescope with increased objective separation”. Abbe employed the improved glass prisms in an air-spaced arrangement, this in the form of the now traditional Porro binocular permitted a wider separation of the two doublet objective lenses. This provided significant improvements over then competing designs in that it resulted in markedly improved depth perception. This patent remained in force until 1908.
The production of prism binoculars by Zeiss commenced in 1894 with their introduction of the 4x 11 mm, a 6x 15 mm, and 8x 20 mm models. In 1895 they would introduce their 10x 25 mm, a greater diversity of models and their variants would follow.
In this era the labeling was applied in an elaborate cursive script style. The trade name applied onto the earliest production binoculars is “C. Zeiss, Jena”, and that is engraved on the left prism cover while the country of origin is engraved on the right prism cover. The labeling scheme was soon changed to “Carl Zeiss, Jena” and with the country of origin on the left prism cover, while the model designation and magnification information were applied on the right prism cover.
Right: the Carl Zeiss Jena trade name applied in cursive script, with the country of origin referred to as D.R.P. (88,448 bytes). From binocular made in 1896, in Company Sevens collection, exhibited at our museum.
The country of origin was referred to by the engraved letters D.R.P.*. Some binoculars were made specifically for distribution by a Zeiss office or retailer in a foreign country, so that binocular may bear the name and city of a representative in London or in Lisbon for example, a binocular may even bear the engraved name of the retailer who distributed it. Some binoculars were personalized, so in addition to the factory and retailer information a binocular may also bear an engraving of the owners name, possibly even an address too.
* The country of origin labeling is D.R.P., the abbreviation for Deutsches Reichspatent that literally translated to German Empire Patent. The D.R.P. mark indicates the item was protected by a 15 year term patent filed with the Kaiserliche(s) Patentamt (Imperial Patent Office). This was the official document, legal within all German states, based on the Reichspatentgesetz law authorized on 25 May 1877 that went in effect 1 July 1877 until 1945. The item so labeled could have been manufactured by the patent holder, or it could have been made under license by some other maker. In 1919 the patent registration office became the Reichswarenzeichenregister (R.W.Z.R., for Empire Trademark Register), then in 1949 Deutsche(s) Patentamt, and after reunification this became Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt (D.P.M.A.) in 1998.
These early production binoculars manufactured for sale on the consumer market may bear identifying information engraved, also in cursive script:
So their 8x 20 mm binoculars made for the civilian market in this era likely bear Feldstecher, and below that Vergr. 8.. In this era the markings did not indicate the lens diameter (aperture), that information is common on later production Zeiss and most other binoculars too and is expressed in millimeters.
Right: labeling of a Carl Zeiss Jena binocular made in the mid 1890s era bearing Feldstecher and below that Vergr. 8. (111,390 bytes).
Up to this time the binoculars available in the marketplace were of the comparatively bulky and primitive Galilean optical arrangement, so as the newer and more compact Porro style binoculars made by Zeiss, Goerz, and others too came onto the consumer market they were sought after. But given the income of the average worker in the day, the cost of a new Zeiss Porro binocular could approach or exceed one month of wages. Civilians, military officers, and others with the means to afford it would acquire their own Porro binocular, and as their peers became acquainted with them then this too promoted more demand.
The military in particular was a market niche for binoculars and one that could allocate funds, pretty much at will, to acquire equipment in some quantity; Zeiss recognized this and negotiated contracts to provide their binoculars. The military binoculars manufactured by Zeiss in this era will bear a model designation with the prefix D. F., this is the abbreviation for Dienstglas Feldstecher (literally ‘service glass binocular’). The first effort by Carl Zeiss to enter the military binocular market was the production of their ‘O.D.F. 95’, a 6x 15 mm made in 1896 specifically for officers; they were likely the only people in the military who could either personally afford to buy them or who had the clout to have them procured them through government channels.
Left: Carl Zeiss Jena O.D.F. MODEL 95, a 6x 15mm Offizier Dienstglas Feldstecher bearing military SN 2174, and production SN 2338 made in 1896 (24,349 bytes). From Company Sevens collection, exhibited with its original leather case (in amazingly good condition) at our museum.
Subsequently Zeiss obtained military contracts to deliver more 6x 15, and their 8x 20 binoculars, designated the ‘D.F. 6x’, and the ‘D.F. 95’ (8x), these commenced deliveries in 1897 with about five-hundred total being produced. Other very early Zeiss models made for the military may bear designations identifying the organization they were intended for, these include the ‘Fussartillerie D.F. 6x’ (Foot artillery 8x) exhibited at Company Seven.
As with rifles and many other military goods of the time, a model design finalized in 1895 might be in production for a decade or more. So a Model 95 binocular might have been manufactured in 1896, 1897 or even years later, the only way to date them is by their production Serial Number. The binoculars made by Zeiss specifically to fulfill for military use or for government contracts were similar to those made for the civilian market, these all tend to feature the more rugged Individual Focus (I.F.) mechanisms arrangement. The sales to this market became an important aspect, growing steadily by 1900 to about five times what were sold in 1897, and that helped Zeiss to prosper and to develop even more new products.
Above: Carl Zeiss Jena D.F. MODEL 95, an 8x 20 mm binocular of the model series made between 1897 to 1907 (107,641 bytes).
The military SN 1249 and production SN 6256 indicate this is among an estimated nine-hundred MODEL 95 contracted in 1897
out of a total production that year of about 4,161 binoculars made. Note the distinctive sloped prism covers.
From Company Sevens collection, exhibited at our museum.
Click on image to see enlarged view (168,230 bytes).
By the end of the 19th century Zeiss had negotiated limited partnership agreements or alliances with several manufacturing companies overseas. Among these was “Bausch & Lomb Optical Co.” of Rochester, N.Y., whom since 1892 had agreed to purchase components, and manufacture complementary optical products or copies of Zeiss product designs under license. This would become a triad after Saegmuller Company of Washington, D.C. was signed onto the alliance, by the Spring of 1905 Saegmuller would merge with Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. moving their facilities to Rochester. Consider that prior to the introduction of the Federal Income Tax in 1913 the United States government relied on income from import tariffs to generate much of its operating revenue. Sometimes having a product made or assembled within the country where it would be sold allowed the bypassing of expensive import tariffs.
Left: Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. The Search-Light of Science advertisement published in 1899 featuring their “Zeiss Stereo Binocular Glasses” (54,670 bytes).
These products were made well, they were marketed widely to the civilian consumer and industrial markets and to the U.S. military, and sold in such quantities that even today it is not uncommon to find a used binocular for sale bearing the engraving of “Bausch & Lomb Co.” as the maker, along with a reference to a Carl Zeiss Patent or Zeiss Prisms.
By 1900 the Zeiss company employed some 1,070 people, while Zeiss products overseas were typically represented by an independent company that had negotiated distribution rights for a country or territory. At the turn of the century in the United States microscopes and some other instruments made by Carl Zeiss Jena were represented by Eimer & Amend, advertising themselves as General Agents, at Nos. 205 to 211 Third Avenue, New York. Those in Jena were still subjects of the Duke of Anhalt, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in the German Empire, but their world was in a matter of years about to change forever.
Another Changing Of The Guard: on 24 September 1903 Abbe notified the Stiftung that due to ill health he was retiring from active management, he was succeeded by Prof. Dr. Siegfried Czapski. Ernst Abbe died in Jena on 14 January 1905.
A memorial to Abbe was proposed by members of the local community, and of the Academy too, these included Eugen Diederichs (b. 1867, d. 1930) a local publisher. The Memorial Committee contracted Henry van de Velde, a well known architect and director of the (Großherzoglichen Weimarer Kunstgewerbeschule) Grand Ducal Weimar Art School, for the design. The Ernst Abbe Denkmal (Ernst Abbe Memorial) was approved and funded by the citizens of Jena. The donations amounted to some 115,000 Kaiserreich Marks, about one million Euros today. That amount was the equivalent then of about $28,050 (U.S. Dollars) at a time when the average worker earned something under ten dollars per week or about $500 per year. The memorial houses a bust of Abbe atop a marble column by Max Klinger (b. 1857, d. 1920), with bronze reliefs by Constantin Emile Meunier showing Abbes lifework in areas of science, technology, and workers welfare.
Right: Postcard illustrating the Carl Zeiss Jena factory as it appeared in about 1911; this is the classic perspective observing the site from the west. Note the domed octagonal Ernst Abbe Denkmal at Carl Zeiss Platz (Carl Zeiss Square) just left of center in the foreground; this is adjacent to Carl Zeiß Straße (Carl Zeiss Street) that traverses the front of the factory from the center left down to the bottom right corner (167,925 bytes).
The Ernst Abbe Denkmal building is an octagonal structure built of limestone, with four entry portals each with hinged bronze doors. The floors are inlaid. The structure is covered by a bronze-clad dome made of reinforced concrete and incorporating glass panels; these panels allow areas of the interior to be illuminated in what some have described as a transcendental manner. The memorial was dedicated on Sunday, 30 July 1911 at the conclusion of a local weekend festival with Henry van de Velde and Max Klinger too attending the ceremony.
As accomplished as he was for his impact in many areas, there is no doubt Ernst Abbe was locally a much admired and appreciated individual. Unfortunately some of those in recent generations lack the reverence or civility genes, and so his memorial is no longer routinely left open to avoid it being vandalized.
More Great Minds
Carl Zeiss employed a number of persons whose names have become familiar to those who use optical instruments. Among them is Albert Koenig (b. August 1871, d. April 1946) who as a student of mathematics and physics at the Universities of Jena and Berlin became acquainted with Dr. Abbe. Albert Koenig came to work for Zeiss Jena in October 1894, and by 1895 Koenig had completed the work for his Ph.D. After his arrival at Zeiss Koenig promoted quickly to become responsible for leading a design team which would develop numerous optical systems including eyepieces, prisms, and telescopic objectives.
The most notable of his astronomical telescope achievements may be the designing of the Zeiss “B-Objektiv” (Type B Objective) refractor, an f15 air-spaced triplet (three lens elements) apochromat design. Made in apertures of from 60 mm up to 200 mm, the Zeiss Type B was the first refractive telescope objective to achieve such a high degree of perfection of color correction and also of spherical aberration, and it remained well regarded from the turn of the century until well after World War II. From the turn of the century, Koenig became head of the department at Zeiss that developed terrestrial telescopes, binoculars, long distance microscopes, range finding and measuring instruments. Koenig was responsible for the development of new ocular designs, some which featured unprecedented apparent fields of view of up to ninety degrees and with good performance. His eyepiece designs over the years included several lens arrangements: combinations of singlet and doublet lenses, of varying glass types, etc. Although there are some contemporary makers who advertise a “Koenig Eyepiece”, that is in fact not a design that is known as having any one particular lens arrangement. Many that are represented to be a Koenig Eyepiece tend to be wide-angle designs of from 65 to 70 degree apparent field of view, and these work best when used with telescopes of longer focal ratios.
Right: Carl Zeiss Jena Parallaktisch montierter Refraktor, an astronomical f/15 refracting telescope with clock driven German Equatorial Mount and metal pier (26,869 bytes). Click on image to see enlarged view (59,689 bytes).
In the 1930s Koenig entered into discussions that would lead co-worker Alexander Smakula to develop antireflection lens coatings that are discussed later in this article. His remains one of the more remarkable careers in optics, spanning some 52 years with Zeiss, achieving noteworthy patents in terms of quantity and of quality. Koenig was a man of remarkable intellect and with management style ideally suited to achievement in his times.
Another famous Zeiss employee was Heinrich Erfle (b. 1884 - d. 1923) who in 1917 Patented a practical design for a wide angle ocular that since 1918 has appeared in many binoculars and telescopes.
Franz A. Meyer (b. 6 June 1868 Hamburg, d. 29 May 1933 Jena) became in 1903 the first college educated engineer employed at the Optical Workshops at Jena; a person of his qualifications was deemed necessary by Abbe for the design and construction of large astronomical instruments although he also played a part in many other areas of production at Jena.
Before the turn of the century management adopted a policy that most common Zeiss products would bear code names that clearly identified the product, this would facilitate cabling information and the placing of orders. Keep in mind that many orders at the time were placed by telegraphy (radio or by wire) and telex (a switched network of teleprinters) at the time, and there were good reasons to keep transmissions brief and succinct. The differences names could also refer to variations of accessories, so for example a particular cased 80 mm telescope furnished with the alt-azimuth stand and wood field tripod, a fitted wood storage case, and selection of accessories was “Asestaron”; that one brief term explained to sales and production alike people what item(s) were expected to be delivered.
Zeiss Binoculars And Other Sporting Optics Boom: the first binoculars made bearing the Zeiss trade name were introduced in 1894; these were their 4x 11 mm and 6 x 15mm Porro prism binocular models. Zeiss records indicate that over that first year of production they assembled 205 binoculars. By the beginning of World War I Zeiss had developed a total of about fifty-nine models of hand held binocular for consumer and military use. The serial numbers were up to about 30,600 by 1900, and sales soon skyrocketed to over serial number 200,000 by 1910, then by 1914 their serial numbers approached 500,000. A consumer 12 x 40 might carry a designation “Teleduz”, while the military contract version carries a “D.F. 12x 40” designation for example with the D.F. indicating Doppelfernrohr (binocular). Between 1907 and 1914 Zeiss listed at least five 6x 30 mm binoculars in production: “Jagdglas”, “Silvarem”, “Silvamar”, “Maringlas”, and a military “D.F. 6x 20”. Comparatively giant binoculars of 60mm, 80mm and even 110mm aperture were introduced for the consumer market, by the 1920s these bore the names “Starmorbi”, “Asembi”, “Asenglar”.
By the end of World War II, Carl Zeiss Jena had produced some 2,260,000 binoculars for military and civilian use!
Many field telescopes were being sold too, some based on designs from their smaller astronomical telescopes while others resembled one half of a larger Zeiss binocular.
The Famous Zeiss Trademark
Zeiss products manufactured up to 1905 bear any one of several company identifying inscriptions but will always mention Zeiss ins some form including “C. Zeiss Jena”, or “Zeiss”, or “Carl Zeiss”; we see these stamped or engraved in block or in hard to read cursive lettering on the binoculars and microscopes in our collection exhibited at Company Seven. Then on 24 June 1904 the issuing certificate for a new Zeiss trademark was approved by the Imperial Patent Office, this logo was fashioned with “Carl Zeiss” within in the border of an achromatic doublet lens outline. The doublet lens logo shape was designed in 1902 by Emil Dönitz, and Engineer and then head of the patent division of Carl Zeiss. While the logotype was created by consultant Erich Kuithan (b. 1875, d. 1917) who was an accomplished artist and designer residing in Jena since 1903. We have observed that by no later than in 1906 this trademark started to appear on Zeiss products, and this was to become a world famous symbol of innovation and excellence.
As Zeiss established representative offices in Berlin, Hamburg, London, Milan, Paris, St. Petersburg, Tokyo, and Vienna, their overseas offices might employ a variation of the logo. In the coming years authorized subsidiaries of Carl Zeiss Jena too (Zeiss Ikon AG for example) employed variations on the original trademark. An example of the use of the Zeiss logo by an overseas office appears in the advertisement at left that was placed by the Carl Zeiss London Ltd. office in 1914.
Left: advertisement by Carl Zeiss London Ltd. from 1914 (39,653 bytes).
The advertisement mentions: Zeiss Instruments, Field Glasses, Observation Telescopes, Sighting Telescopes, Periscopic Observation & Sighting Telescopes, Signaling Apparatus, Searchlights, Gunsight Adjusting Apparatus, Rangefinders for Field, Coast, & Marine Use, Submarine Periscopes.
The original logo remained in use throughout World War II. After that war this logo remained the corporate trademark employed by Carl Zeiss Jena of East Germany until the reunification of Germany and that of the Zeiss companies in the 1991; this is explained later in this article. After World War II the Optron company, later Carl Zeiss West Germany, founded at Oberkochen in the State of Baden-Württemberg employed variants of this trademark too, without the “Jena”, until 1972. Almost two decades after the reunification of East and West Germany, we observed the original logo gradually coming back into use by Zeiss. Zeiss mentioned this is done “in order to maintain the industrial property rights”, and maybe at some corporate level that sterile legalize flies with somebody, but to us at Company Seven celebrate this as more a matter of Carl Zeiss gaining back some of the companys lost soul.
We note however, there were companies that were completely unassociated with any Zeiss concern who have mimicked the doublet lens logo for their own use, no doubt attempting to capitalize on the fame and good reputation built by Zeiss. Some of this tastelessness continues even today.
The 7x 50 Is Born: by the turn of the century glass and prism technologies were being improved so that Zeiss could explore the possibilities for developing larger aperture binoculars. Some of these would be marketed specifically for low light applications, for work in adverse seeing conditions, or where higher magnifications were desired. The anticipated uses for the improved hand held models included work at sea on boats and ships, hunting in low light conditions, etc. Studies by Zeiss demonstrated the Iris of a typical healthy adult eye, when dark-adapted, would dilate (open) to about 7mm diameter. Since a 7 mm Exit Pupil with 7x magnification pointed to 50 mm objectives, Zeiss developed their first 7x 50 mm binocular and assigned it the model name “Noctar”.
Right: the long and slender profile of the Carl Zeiss Jena Noctar, their first production 7x 50mm binocular. Note the cylindrical Porro I prisms housings. The retractable lens shades (shown extended) help to cut glare and ghosting from off-axis stray light and reduce likelihood of dew or spray build-up on the objectives (front) lenses (image 130,088 bytes).
The Noctar was announced simultaneously with a higher-magnification variant of the arrangement, marketed as the 10x 50 “Dekar”. There are some conflicts in the data at Company Seven about when this was formally introduced and put into production, but the information points to this happening either in 1910 or 1911 with this first model being discontinued in 1919. Company Seven has a Zeiss 7x 50 Noctar that by its serial number points to having been produced after 1919. There is also some debate about whether it was Carl Zeiss Jena or Ernst Leitz company in Wetzlar that produced the first 7x 50, we are simply not sure as most people who could tell us are either dead or senile, and we have not (yet) come upon dated documentation to provide either was the first on the market.
The slender arrangement of these first 50 mm models relied on the patented Abbe (or Abbe-Koenig) prism design, sometimes referred to as Porro I, that was described as early as 1895 by Prof. Dr. Siegfried Czapski. The basic prism design is so sound that it remains in production, being employed in the Zeiss Victory series and other premium binoculars of today.
The 50 mm aperture became adopted as the standard configuration for applications where observing in low light or adverse circumstances required the light gathering power. While 7x was about the limit of what most people could hold the binocular with good stability over extended observing sessions. For marine work in particular the choice 7x is a good balance of magnification, reasonable field of view, and stability on these moving platforms. For decades to come and even today the 7x 50 remains the most popular marine binocular.
Left: several generations of Carl Zeiss 7x 50 Marine binoculars exhibited at Company Seven.
Counterclockwise and starting at top right: the tall and slender Carl Zeiss Jena NOCTAR - their first 7x 50 introduced in 1911, Carl Zeiss Jena 7x 50 BINOCTAR introduced in 1919 and produced through 1990, a Kriegsmarine issue 7x 50H introduced in 1938 (this example with AR Coatings captured at sea early in 1941), a Carl Zeiss Jena BLC-marked model designed specifically for U-Boat service produced from 1942 to 1945, a civilian Zeiss West Germany Marine binocular made 1964 to 1972, the latest and greatest Carl Zeiss 7x 50 B/GA T* made from 1979 to 2016 with this one having been made in 2016, a sophisticated Carl Zeiss Jena RLN-marked 1944 military issue model (image 148,191 bytes).
Counterclockwise and starting at top right: the tall and slender Carl Zeiss Jena NOCTAR - their first 7x 50 introduced in 1911, Carl Zeiss Jena 7x 50 BINOCTAR introduced in 1919 and produced through 1990, a Kriegsmarine issue 7x 50H introduced in 1938 (this example with AR Coatings captured at sea early in 1941), a Carl Zeiss Jena BLC-marked model designed specifically for U-Boat service produced from 1942 to 1945, a civilian Zeiss West Germany Marine binocular made 1964 to 1972, the latest and greatest Carl Zeiss 7x 50 B/GA T* made from 1979 to 2016 with this one having been made in 2016, a sophisticated Carl Zeiss Jena RLN-marked 1944 military issue model (image 148,191 bytes).
This formula of maintaining a ratio of aperture to magnification that produces a 7-ish mm diameter exit pupil remains the world standard for marine and for astronomy uses. By 1914 Zeiss had introduced the more compact and manageable 7x 50 “Binoctar” to the consumer market, this is the binocular that was to become the model in terms of optical arrangement and external appearance for generations of marine and low light binoculars to come.
The individual focus Binoctar introduced in 1919, and its central focus version the Binoctem, along with some variants (D.F., etc.) would remain in production at Carl Zeiss in Jena and later at the Eisfeld factory of Carl Zeiss Jena of East Germany, with some improvements in materials and design until 1990. Carl Zeiss of West Germany too would introduce their own more compact and robustly constructed 7x 50, later culminating in what may be the finest 7x 50 ever made: the individual focus Carl Zeiss 7x 50 T∗ B/GA Nautik marine binocular Model 525505. One of our last arriving new example 525505 has been retired to our museum collection exhibit (shown among the group of 7x 50 binoculars above at left), and so we exhibit a comprehensive span of Carl Zeiss 7x 50 history to date.
Back to Innovating: by 1904 Zeiss had developed and manufactured the “stereo comparator”. This instrument facilitates the measurement of relative distances and reveal changes within a star field by comparing one image against another simultaneously. This tool would become invaluable for the discovery of many celestial wonders including asteroids, comets, and another notable achievement - the discovery of Pluto by Clyde Tombaugh.
In 1908 Carl Zeiss placed responsibility for the design of a revolutionary prescription spectacle lens in the hands of scientist Moritz von Rohr (b. 1868, d. 1940). The result was that in 1909 Zeiss Punktal lenses were invented. Bt 1912 the new Punktal spectacle lenses were introduced to the market and for the first time a prescription lens could be bought that would provide identical visual quality even over a wide field of view.
Zeiss products received acclaim from scientists, explorers, and naturalists. The Zeiss name was becoming more well known around the world because in part of the appeal to the consumer and professionals too of their photographic and sports optics, and of course for their microscopes too upon which the foundation for the company was laid. Of course many military organizations were contracting Carl Zeiss Jena to provide photo and visual optical and measuring instruments too.
Zeiss could capitalize on the achievements of their popular clients, often featuring testimonials from them in Zeiss advertising. Among the more notable people to vouch for Zeiss products was the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. Amundsen attained world acclaim for leading the first expeditions that, beyond reproach, reached both the North and the South poles. He purchased his own Carl Zeiss Jena binocular in 1902, and he carried this with him over numerous expeditions over more than twenty two years, including during his pioneering and successful venture climaxing on 14 December 1911 when he and his team of four others were the first people to set foot at the South Pole. He commented about problems with their compass at -40 Degrees F, but made no mention of any problems with his Zeiss and Goetz binoculars though especially if this was a central focus model this was likely prepared with special cold climate lubricants. His letter complimenting Zeiss was first published in 1925 advertising.
On 1 November 1924 Amundsen wrote a letter to Mr. Harold M. Bennett, the representative for Carl Zeiss in New York:
My most prized possession is my Carl Zeiss Binocular, which is just as good today as when I bought it in 1902.
Right: Carl Zeiss Jena advertisement featuring testimonial letter from the world renowned Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (72,494 bytes).
End of Empire: 1914 to 1918
The German Empire was one of the Central Powers that became embroiled in the “War to End All Wars”. However, the German side was doomed to defeat in part because up to 1914 Germany had become heavily dependent on imports, most notably of food and raw materials. Germany could not control the sea lanes, and it was geographically surrounded by adversaries. Furthermore, their war economy was never all that well organized and often simply mismanaged, so that up to the end of the war it never fully adapted. Shortages of materials for war, food and conditions for their civilian population on the home front deteriorated too.
The war had seen steady increases in government contracts for equipment from Zeiss. In response to the increased demands the company rolls swelled from the 5,300 arbeiter und angestellte (workers and employees) of 1914, up to a peak of 11,043 workers in 1917.
The entry of the United States into the war on the Allied side in April 1917 tipped the balance of manpower and material well in favor of Germanys adversaries. The Armistice of 11 November 1918 ended the fighting between Germany and the Allied Powers. It would be some months later when the Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919, that the war between Germany and the Allied Powers was formally ended. The German Empire was among those on the losing side of the war, but it would be Germany that suffered the most harsh terms and demands for reparations of all the Central Powers; the treaty contained a War Guilt clause requiring “Germany accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage”. This treaty would all but guarantee World War II.
The devastatingly effective Allied blockade of food and material to Germany continued until July 1919. The post war environment of 1919 to 1923 was one of marked decline in demand for products from the government, as was the case for many manufacturing companies on both sides of the war. However, the financial chaos that enveloped Europe, and especially Germany after the Treaty of Versallies, resulted in not only in a predictable decline of demand for military related optics but this also stifled demand by consumers too. The civilian population were strapped by the consequences of the war; they could not ameliorate the precipitous decline in demand even for manufactured consumer products. This led to dramatic lay-offs of personnel and reduction of production.
Zeiss International Marketing, Alliances, and the War: before the beginning of World War I Zeiss had established the “Carl Zeiss, Jena Optische Werkstaette” with marketing branches in Berlin, Frankfurt, Vienna, London, and Hamburg with other sales agents around the world. Other firms offered Zeiss products including: Eastman Kodak who manufactured a Zeiss “Anastigmat” lens under license for its cameras; and Ross Ltd. of London.
After the war the Treaty of Versailles imposed strict (and arguably unfair) terms and conditions on Germany. Economic and political conditions in Germany continued to free fall for some time after the war with runaway inflation, and rampant shortages; conditions were difficult for German manufacturers. In the German photographic industry for example, the prices published by manufacturers were being quoted as subject to change, and with the factory retaining the right to delay promised delivery dates. As explained by one author in May 1920, “In its effects, it even goes so far as frequently to violate the principles of commercial etiquette.”
From shortly before World War I, and after the War To End All Wars during the interval leading up to World War II, the Carl Zeiss firm established subsidiaries in European countries to produce optics. Some of these subsidiary companies produced military optics (binoculars and range finding optics for example) which if made in Germany might have aroused international concern. It is not unusual to find the traditional Zeiss trademark with the city of origin in place of “Jena” listed as “Petersburg” Russia, or “Nedinsco Venlo Systeem Carl Zeiss Jena”; both being located outside of Germany.
Possibly to avoid past or future legal litigation, after World War I Carl Zeiss Jena established a distributor in New York, this was “Bennett & Co.” owned by Mr. Harold M. Bennett and initially located at 110 East 23rd Street in New York City. A business man with proven experience, Bennett had already spent considerable time visiting Dresden and Jena, learning about the technology and nurturing business relations that would later help him lock in his position with Zeiss. In 1920 he was the appointed representative for Ica-Contessa Cameras. By 1922 the organization had moved to occupy the entire 11th floor of the building at 153 and 155 West 23rd Street, New York City. This was partitioned into a showroom to host visits from professionals and members of the trade, stock rooms, and business offices. The exhibits included: laboratory instruments including microscopes, spectroscopes, refractometers, medical and diagnostic instruments, spectacles, field glasses, opera glasses including the Teleater, astronomical telescopes with some equipped for astrophotography, terrestrial observation telescopes, Ica-Contessa cameras and lenses, and magnifiers including folding and models suitable for craftsmen including watchmakers. In December, 1925 this organization was incorporated as “Carl Zeiss, Inc.” at 485 - 5th Avenue, New York, N.Y. Regional representative agent offices were also established in Chicago, and Los Angeles.
Seventy-five Years: 1846 to 1921: after the war Zeiss management revised their production to meet the new realities; there was little demand for Zeiss Periscopes even by allied navies for example. However, the post war era found many countries with thriving consumer markets demanding cameras and other goods. So whole things could have been better, 1921 found 5,300 gainfully employed workers celebrated the seventy-five year anniversary of the founding of the Zeiss company.
Above: illustration from 75 Year Anniversary commemoration of the Carl Zeiss Jena showing growth of the factory by 1921 (316,749 bytes).
As in the images above from 1911 and 1914, note the domed octagonal Ernst Abbe Denkmal at Carl Zeiss Platz just left of center in the foreground.
This seems to be an updated and enhanced version of the illustration from 1914; note the horse-drawn carriage and vehicle by the intersection,
and even the number of pedestrians appear identical, and they are all located at the same spots.
Click on image to see enlarged high resolution view (1,104,140 bytes).
Zeiss And Diversification: the growing production capability at Jena continued into diverse areas including manufacture of automobile acetylene headlights and spotlights beginning in 1911, which were initially ground of crystal glass with a silver plated parabolic reflector. By October of 1912 this was incorporated into “The Auto Department”. By 1921 electrical headlights were in production at Jena. Shortly after World War I the demand for these components increased with production expanding between 1927 and 1929 into related areas of spot lamps, and fog light headlamps. But, by 1933 Zeiss sales in these areas had declined to insignificance as may other companies entered the market, at times with improved designs and often selling at far lower prices.
Right: advertising poster for the Carl Zeiss Jena “auto-scheinwerfer” (automobile spotlight) from October 1929 (49,008 bytes). Translates: “Zeiss Automobile-Spotlight. Detailed publications from Carl Zeiss Jena”. From Company Sevens museum archives.
By 1913 Dr. Hans Lehmann at the Ernemann Werke at Dresden prototyped a very high speed movie camera that produced images that when played back on a conventional projector, it allowed the study of motion. This would be marketed by the Instrument Department of Zeiss Ikon as the “Zeitlupe”. The original hand driven commercial camera operated at about 300 frames per second but, with improvements over the years Zeiss eventually produced cameras capable of many thousands of images per second.
By 1923 Carl Zeiss Jena manpower was up to about 5,000 employees, this in spite of the worldwide economic recession and depression of the 1920s the Zeiss company continued to grow. Representation overseas increased too for example the Carl Zeiss, Inc. office at 485 Fifth Avenue in New York City established a “Pacific Coast Branch” at 728 South Hill Street, in Los Angeles, California. The advertisements for Zeiss in the U.S.A., at least through 1928, show both locations.
Zeisss Inspirational Planetariums: among the areas of prominent growth in the sciences at the time was the field of astronomy. As the demand grew for larger and more complicated telescopes and mountings, this could be met only by a firm with well-integrated resources including Zeiss.
One of the technologies that Zeiss pioneered and dominated before World War II, was the development and production of planetarium instruments. A planetarium instrument is housed in the center of a room with a hemispherically domed ceiling. The instrument projects points of light and images of deep sky objects onto the ceiling to simulate the night sky from various perspectives including seasonal, or historical views of the Earth-sky relationship. These instruments were single handedly responsible for motivating many young people to explore and to better comprehend astronomy and celestial navigation.
In the years before World War I, Carl Zeiss Jena was approached by Oskar von Miller and other planners of the Das Deutsche Museum (The German Museum) of science and technology in Munich. They asked Zeiss to propose a design for a new educational instrument to teach astronomy at their forthcoming larger facility. The reply was a concept by Dr. Ing. Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld (23 Jan. 1879 in Berlin, d. 28 Oct. 1959 in Heidenheim an der Brenz), an engineer and physicist who had since 1908 been the Geschäftsführer (Managing Director) of Carl Zeiss Jena. The conceptual instrument was discussed as early as 1913 with Dr. Max Wolf, Director of the Heidelberg Observatory.
Right: Dr. Ing. Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld (107,792 bytes).
Right: Dr. Ing. Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld (107,792 bytes).
As a result Zeiss moved forward with the engineering designs then constructed two planetarium instruments and their hemispheric domes. These first planetarium projectors projected: 1. a representation of the planets orbiting around the sun, and 2. the night sky (constellations, major deep sky objects, etc).
Left: early Carl Zeiss Jena Planetarium 23c projector (107,792 bytes). Note the program lecturer is holding a flashlight with an arrow over the lens, this was used for pointing out objects on the ceiling of the Planetarium dome.
World War I delayed the development but commencing immediately after in 1919 Bauersfeld led the team to construct a unique projector, and it was he who managed the team that created the first modern planetarium. This first projection planetarium was constructed at the Zeiss Jena factory and was demonstrated there to the museum directors before dismantling, transportation and final installation. Zeiss patented the device in 1922 and the first planetarium instrument in the world, a Zeiss Model I, was placed into service in 21 October 1923. It was located at the new Deutsches Museum von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (German Museum for Masterpieces of Natural Science and Technology) at Munich, Oskar von Miller formally opened the new museum on 2 May 1925.
The original instrument was designed to reflect the sky above Munich and it created such a sensation that Zeiss was giving demonstrations to military, ocean navigational companies and countless others there. What had been an engineering exercise to create a special instrument for a single museum became a great product for education and inspiration. In part as a technology demonstrator and also as a part of the Stiftungs sense of civic duty, the Zeiss Planetarium Jena was completed and inaugurated on 18 July 1926. Kurd Kisshauer (b. Dec. 1886 in Berlin, d. Nov. 1958) had been among the Zeiss employees involved with the project. While Kisshauers doctorate was in political science, he was however an experienced amateur astronomer and member of the Astronomical Society and so his practical experience was beneficial for the project. By 1926 Kurd Kisshauer had left Zeiss and moved to Dresden where later in 1926 he became the Director of the newly completed Municipal Planetarium Dresden.
Major cities around the globe wanted their own planetarium and so Bauersfelds team modified the original design so that it would be able to represent the skies over any point on the globe. Where ever there planetarium instruments were installed they became a source of civic pride. And these sales were a source of revenue for a company that was working hard to survive the great depression. Even after World War II both Zeiss companies would establish planetarium production at their headquarters, and their domes would figure prominently in the skyline of their factories. Even though after the second world war these were never really a profit center for Zeiss, it was a matter of social responsibility and corporate pride that inspired Zeiss to continue production. This may have had something to do also with the leadership and influence of Dr. Bauersfeld, who had been deeply involved with the development of astronomical telescopes, their mounts, and instruments. Since 1927 Bauersfeld had also taught Astronomical Physics and Engineering Mechanics as an Associate Professor, and from 1938 to 1946 was ordentlicher Professor (Professor ordinarius) at the University of Jena.
Germany Helping The People Who Would Later Eat Their Lunch: Nikon of Japan was formed when three leading optical manufacturers in Japan merged to form Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha (日本光学工業株式会社, or “Japan Optical Industries Corporation”). The company became known in many areas including the production of optical and measuring equipment, binoculars, small telescopes and even larger and more complicated astronomical telescopes. Moving into the 1920's Nikon worked to produce more sophisticated camera lenses but the company, lacking engineering know-how, ran into roadblocks. So by 1921 Nippon Kogaku persuaded eight German optical engineers to come to work for the company. These engineers including Heinrich Acht, Hermann Dillmann and Max Lange, were instrumental in helping to get Nippon Kogaku onto the right track.
A series of lenses whose designs were modeled on the Zeiss Tessor were designated "Anytar" lenses. Seven of the German engineers returned home in 1926 while Acht remained until 1928, this was happening as in-turn Kakuya Sunayama, the General Manager of the Lens Design Department, visited Germany to learn more about optics. Mr. Sunayama acquired a Carl Zeiss 50cm F4.8 Triplet (three element) lens. The Zeiss lens was disassembled, studied, and essentially copied so that by 1929 Nippon Kogaku had completed their first prototype camera lens and designated this the Tessor-type Anytar 50cm F4.5. This lens was followed by the Anytar 12cm F4.5 at the end of 1929, as well as the 7.5 cm and 18 cm focal length lenses. By 1930 the Triplet, the Tessor and the Dagor type lenses were in production. Improving upon the original designs by 1931 the Anytar 12cm F4.5 was said to have become competitive with the Zeiss Tessor. With the prospects for developing a system of photographic lenses it was decided to market them under a unifying name, thus the NIKKOR brand was born in 1932.
The 1930s And More Optical Innovation For Cameras And Binoculars: in 1849 Moritz Carl Hensoldt (b. 1821 - d. 1903) and his brother-in-law Carl Kellner (known best for his eyepiece design) began a business for the fabrication of telescopes. By 1850 Hensoldt formed his own company “M. Hensoldt & Soehne AG” for the manufacture of optical instruments. By 1928 the Hensoldt company, with its factory in Wetzlar, had the Carl Zeiss company as a shareholder. Zeiss thereby acquired a partnership with a manufacturer best known for their roof prism binoculars introduced in 1897, and in 1905 the “Dialyt” series of Abbe-Koenig in line prism binoculars and riflescopes. Hence the similarity between the appearance of traditional Hensoldt roof prism binoculars made since about 1905 and several Carl Zeiss roof prism products up to today. Improvements continued, including the 1933 shift from binocular housing construction of brass and zinc to lighter weight metals including aluminum and magnesium.
As mentioned previously, camera production became an important sector for Zeiss, with their dozens of brands and factories involved in production for that market. Zeiss had become involved in camera lens design and fabrication giving the world such famous names as “Tessar”, “Biotar” and “Sonnar” with the latter having been developed by Dr. Ludwig Bertele - another famous name in optics design. The increased emphasis in this growing market lead to a landmark negotiation in the history of Zeiss with the founding of Zeiss Ikon in 1926.
Zeiss Ikon AG resulted from the planned merger of four well regarded names in the photo industry, and by the establishment of two new subsidiaries. The business plan was to unify, under Zeiss, the production and marketing of: cameras, lenses, and other photographic equipment by:
The combining of these companies was made possible by a notable additional investment from the Zeiss foundation. Zeiss Ikon facilities now included the Ica factory in Dresden, two Goerz factories in Berlin (which also made searchlights, medical instruments), and the Contessa Werke in Stuttgart.
Zeiss Ikon AG would remain based in Dresden, there in 1932 they began to produce box cameras under the tenure of Dr. Ing. Heinz Küppenbender. Carl Zeiss entered the 35 mm format camera market, that had been pioneered by rival Ernst Leitz Optische Werke, of Wetzlar. The first 35 mm entry was the “Contax” range finder camera, this was also built in Dresden. These cameras in prewar and in postwar configurations too earned Zeiss worldwide respect and admiration, their success led to the development of the Contarex and the Contax RTS camera series, some of which were fabricated by Yashica-Kyocera of Japan years later under license to Zeiss specifications. Lenses made by Carl Zeiss were made for sale with cameras manufactured by other firms such as Rollei and Exacta at Dresden. Zeiss lenses made in Germany and by Yashica continue as the choice for several camera manufacturing firms including Hasselblad of Sweden - even though in the mid 1970 Hasselblad seriously contemplated offering Nikon lenses. And Zeiss lenses to this day also remain available for use with many commercial products including copiers, photogrammetric cameras, comparators, etc.
More Innovations In Astronomy, And The First Planetarium In America: the 1930s were an exciting time of change and discovery in the world, and exhilarating time of productivity for Carl Zeiss Jena Astronomical Instruments section. By 1930 the first Planetarium had opened in North America; the “Adler” Zeiss Planetarium in Chicago. This was to introduce several generations of youngsters and adults to a rare treat - a tour of the heavens. To this day Zeiss Planetarium instruments continue to inspire awe at facilities around the world including that planetarium projector at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum “Einstein Planetarium” in Washington, D.C.
Zeiss optics were so well regarded and known around the world that this 1930 advertisement featured the Radiogram thanking Carl Zeiss, Inc. of New York. The Radiogram was sent from Richard E. Byrd, Jr. from the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (his first expedition of 1928 to 1930) to the New York Times, and with a return address of “Little America Antarctica”
Right: Carl Zeiss binoculars advertisement of 1930, with text of the advertisement to the center of the page:
Zeiss Binoculars, Cameras and Microscopes
giving splendid results under trying
conditions. They are a pleasure to use,
and their high quality is much appreciated.”
By 1933 Zeiss had manufactured several proven refractors of the “E”, “A” and “AS” achromatic doublet designs, and apochromat triplets of the “U.V.” and “B” (Koenig) designs. These telescopes were offered in apertures of up to 65cm (25.6 inch) aperture f16 requiring a 14.5 meter diameter dome, a 60cm (23.62 inch) “Doppelrefraktor” (double refractor) f16 was available employing two objectives mounted in parallel within one tube - potentially the largest “binocular” ever made, a 36cm “Dreifacher” employing three telescopes in parallel with two U.V. triplets of 36cm with a 30cm “E” objective guidescope for astrographic uses, and numerous smaller refractors of 40cm, 30cm, 25cm down to 6cm achromatic models for use by amateurs and schools. Large pedestal or tripod mounted binoculars of from 60mm up to 15cm with 20x, 40 and 80x magnification oculars mounted in a turret were in production. Mirror telescopes of Newtonian, Cassegrain and Schmidt designs included models up to 1.25 meter aperture in single, or double or even triple configurations for astrographic applications. Zenith telescopes, spectrographic instruments and attachments, micrometers, photometers, comparators, coelostats of at least up to 65 cm diameter, and sundials of up to at least 90cm diameter rounded out the product line. And of course the production of telescopes was accompanied by the fabrication of mounts and drives to move them, and the domes to house them.
By the mid 1930s Zeiss offered a very wide selection of camera lenses and filters for use with print, and movie cameras, including some particularly unusual models such as the “Quartz-Anastigmat” of 120mm or 250mm focal length described by Zeiss as a “rapid special lens for criminological and scientific photography particularly with ultraviolet light”.
More New Technology, Including Antireflection Coatings: prior to 1935 all refractive lenses were made with no protective or anti-reflection treatments; the bare glass was exposed to the air or cemented to other lens components. So a notable amount of the light (4 to 6 percent per surface) approaching a lens was reflected off each lens surface - front AND back too. Consider an easy example for a moment - what do you see when you walk by a window pane? Your reflection! There is enough light reflected off that glass surface so that you can discern the image. The same thing was happening in telescopes, eyepieces, camera lenses - but worse since optical instruments and lenses consist of multiple elements of glass, there was the tendency not only to reflect light off the first lens surface but also to reflect light back and forth between uncoated air-spaced elements in the system. This not only decreased overall light throughput, but often resulted in ghost or secondary images showing up on film or to the eye; an astronomer might be seeing a star in the field that was not really there. So it was another noteworthy milestone when on November 1, 1935 a team led by Dr. Alexander Smakula (b. 9 Sep. 1900, d. 17 May 1983), a staff member at Carl Zeiss AG at Jena, patented the first anti-reflective (T Transparenz) coatings thereby improving light transmission dramatically over uncoated lenses in binoculars to over 80 per cent, reducing ghost images and finding other applications for the advances of optics in many other fields. The AR coatings remained a closely guarded technology, a military secret, applied only to the most critical optical elements until about 1940. After then they were applied to the lens elements of more and more devices (binoculars, rangefinders, etc.). By the mid 1940s the consumer might have had their first introduction to this technology with their prescription eyeglasses.
Also of note, Dr. Smakula was involved in the development of synthesized crystals, grown from solutions in a laboratory environment. By the end of the 1930s he had developed the first KRS five mixed crystal (thallium iodide-thallium bromide) that remains in use in infrared technology applications.
It should be mentioned that the first AR coatings were not very durable. However, Dr. A. F. Turner of the Scientific Bureau of the Bausch and Lomb Co. in Rochester, New York developed a more durable Magnesium-Fluoride treatment that are optimized for the yellow-green, this region of the visual spectrum is the peak of sensitivity for the human eye. These coatings are only four-millionths of an inch thick but when applied on all air to glass surfaces, increased light transmission through a binocular and in the case of a 7x 50 this might mean an increase of from 57.8% to 75% overall and with a reduction of ghosting and flare. First applied for commercial optics by B&L in 1939, by 1941 they were approved for service use and were finding their way into military optics. For example by 1943 the lenses and prisms of most U.S. military binoculars were being made with these AR coatings. As binoculars were returned to service centers for repairs or maintenance, upgrades such as changing older uncoated lenses to the newer antireflection coated optics could have been retrofitted to some Mod versions. After the war these coatings were marketed by B&L for the civilian market under the trade name “Balcote”.
Multiple layer antireflection coatings (multi coatings) were developed in the 1960s that improved light throughput, resistance to ghosting, and overall contrast; Company Seven exhibits an early prototype Zeiss West German camera lens incorporating distinctive multi coatings. In 1972 Carl Zeiss West Germany formally announced their improved antireflective coatings technology for lenses at Photokina in Cologne. These optics bear the T* designation, and their coatings permit a transmission of more than ninety (90) percent of the light entering a binocular for example. In 1988 “Phase Correction” coatings were introduced on all Carl Zeiss West Germany roof prism binoculars. Phase Correction facilitates a more uniform throughput of light across a wide portion of the visual spectrum thereby resulting in further improvements of resolution and contrast by systems incorporating roof prisms. Zeiss continues to refine and improve these coatings technologies.
Zeiss, Just Before The World Went Mad:
It was the excellent quality of design and meticulous craftsmanship in manufacturing of products by the German firms including Zeiss, Hensoldt, and Leitz (presently marketed as “Leica”) to name a few that over the course of the early half of the century served to cement the international perception of the preeminent quality of German optics mechanical design and manufacture as a whole.
Carl Zeiss Jena had become a Social-Democratic bulwark. Yet from 1933 and through World War II the management of the Carl Zeiss industrial complex had generally supported the Nationalsozialismus (Nazi) regime as did most major German industries, although there are examples of personal risk taken in favor of high moral principles. By 1937 the corporate priorities were obviously changing. In Dresden where camera production had been dominant, civilian products and development were gradually discouraged in favor of those products such as bombsights, which met the more immediate goals of the government.
The 1937 literature indicated Zeiss was established worldwide with marketing branches in Berlin, Vienna, Cologne, Hamburg, Brussels, London, New York, Los Angeles (under New York), Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Tokyo with other firms acting as sales agents in Montreal, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Singapore, Melbourne and Sydney, Bangkok, Cairo and Haifa, Johannesburg, Stockholm, Amsterdam, Paris, Milan, Madrid, Shanghai.
By 1937 Zeiss catalogs listed about twenty high quality monocular, binocular and stereomicroscope configurations in their literature. They also marketed a wide selection of optional attachments and illuminators including at least thirty-three objectives of from 2X to 120X including six Fluorite models, and about twenty eyepieces of Huygens, Orthoscopic, and Compensating designs of from 3X to 30X.
Zeiss During World War II:
As early as in 1937 the actions by the government of Japan in China had prompted President Roosevelt to direct his Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau to evaluate options for economic sanctions, and clear them with the Department of Justice. Tensions with Japan eased and these plans were tabled. The subsequent actions by Nazi Germany in 1938, the Anschluss and later the annexation of the Sudetenland, did not provoke U.S. economic sanctions. However, after Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on 8 April 1940 the United States responded with Presidential Executive Order 8389. The Presidential act was based of the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 as amended by Congress in 1933. Executive Order 8389 initially applied solely to Danish and Norwegian assets held in the United States, it attempted to isolate control of these assets, financial or business or otherwise, from Nazi Germany. This legislation also established an “Alien Property Custodian” who took control of Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and other assets. The Department of State had argued against implementing the order, wanting the U.S. to appear as much as possible neutral, and for as long as was practical. As Germany advanced through Europe in 1940 and 1941, the assets of those counties that became occupied were similarly frozen. On 14 June 1941 the President issued Executive Order 8785 that extended controls over: Germany (including Danzig, Austria, and Poland), Italy, the Soviet Union (only through 22 June 1941 when Germany invaded it), neutral nations, small principalities, and several countries that had not not previously been included.
While the U.S. Government confiscated patents and other assets of Nazi Germany, the American company Carl Zeiss Inc. continued doing business in New York, even after December 1941, but sold all remaining imported merchandise. Afterward, the U.S. based company provided services as possible, including routine work of maintaining and repairing microscopes for example, and eventually became more and more involved with the manufacture of products in the United States. Interestingly enough, throughout World War II one could find newly produced Carl Zeiss licensed designs of optical equipment. For example there were military issue binoculars made in the United States based on Zeiss designs and that appear identical to those of Zeiss Jena, but that were made made by United States companies as late as in 1943 and still bearing a modified Zeiss logo. The Presidents Executive Order addressed trademarks too, so the doublet lens logo of Carl Zeiss Inc. was modified so that it bore only the ZEISS name in the upper partition, and possibly a product model (7x50 for example) in the lower partition of the logo. Throughout this time Carl Zeiss Inc. remained under the management of Dr. Karl Bauer, the corporations first president who was a citizen of Germany.
In the years just before and for a year or two after World War II began (arguably) in September 1939 there had been an air of invincibility in Germany. In keeping with traditional practice most Carl Zeiss products and those of other manufacturers in Germany had proudly borne the makers trademark and city of origin of the product. However, by late 1941 it became clear to the Nazi administration that the Allies would be able to identify factories and then bomb these targets in Germany. So in February 1942 the German Armaments Ministry assigned three letter code marks to each of those companies engaged in fabricating military hardware. The codes identified the manufacturer and their facility location. So for example Carl Zeiss Jena products employed code marks including “blc”, and later in the war “rln”, while Leitz products were identified by “beh”, and so on.
An Endorsement Of Zeiss By The U.S. Government: as had been the case when the United States entered World War I, in 1942 the military did not possess enough binoculars to meet the impending needs of their rapidly growing forces. The manufacturers that would in time meet that demand were just starting to gear up for war, their escalating production would not meet the demand for a year or more. So in the interim the government issued appeals for consumers to loan their better binoculars for the war effort. In a replay of the Eyes for the Navy program of 1918, in the U.S. Navy asked civilians to send in their binoculars for evaluation of suitability for service, these were sent to The U.S. Naval Observatory, in Washington, D.C. It is an interesting commentary about how well regarded Carl Zeiss Jena optics were in the years leading up to World War II when the U.S. Government published advertisements asking the public to loan their personal binoculars for the war effort the ads specifically mention Zeiss and Bausch and Lomb.
Right: one of the U.S. Navy advertisements soliciting civilian binoculars, this was printed in 1942. The text of that ad is below (44,401 bytes).
No Enemy Sub Will Dare Lift Its Eye If You Lend Your Zeiss
The newly arrived civilian binocular would be inspected and if found suitable for naval use it would have a Serial No. and owners name too engraved for identification purposes. The number would be a four or five digit number followed by a dash and the year. So it is possible to find binoculars that were originally made and trademarked for the consumer market bearing military identification markings. It is somewhat ironic that Zeiss optics were pressed into service against the very U-Boats that Zeiss supplied with binoculars and periscopes.
Since regulations of the day prohibited Federal agencies, including the military, from the accepting of gifts or free loans the owner of the loaned binocular had to be compensated. So the owner received a letter from the Navy Bureau of Ships confirming the loan and providing them with the assigned serial number, the letter also enclosed a Public Voucher form to be completed and signed by the citizen. Upon return of that voucher the Navy would issue a check in the amount of one dollar, the same amount they paid in 1918, that “releases the Navy from any obligation should the binoculars be lost. All possible care will be taken, however, to insure their return at the end of the war.” After the war the owners whose binoculars could not be returned were contacted again by the Navy and offered compensation.
Back In Europe: there were forced foreign laborers (Fremdarbeiter) who were brought to work at Carl Zeiss Jena and other German manufacturing facilities. And it is certain that not all Germans were sympathetic to the Nazi regime, in fact there are known examples of intervention by the Zeiss Personnel Department to obtain the release from prison of some foreign laborers. Some Germans might warn a newcomer to “watch what you say” around certain others who might be Nazi supporters. One foreign laborer at Jena recalls visiting a couple whose son was at the Russian front and while there he dialed their radio to listen to the news from London, he was later warned such conduct in wartime Nazi Germany could lead to the death penalty.
Zeiss optics figured prominently in the success of many weapons systems. For examples there were the pressure resistant U-Boat U.D.F. targeting bearing transmitter binoculars, ultra wide angle large aperture binoculars, the stereoscopic range finders and sights used to direct fearsome weapons such as the outstanding 88mm anti-tank guns. One of the most published early photographs of the war shows Adolf Hitler outside of Warsaw, Poland in September of 1939 observing through a pair of artillery director periscoping binoculars (commonly used by a battery director to evaluate and correct artillery ranging) as the city is leveled by German artillery and air forces. Company Seven maintains a 52mm Scherenfernrohr, literally translates to shears or scissors telescope though sometimes referred to by Zeiss as Relieffernrohre or Relief Telescope, with rotating eyepiece turret of 10/20 X on exhibit in our museum collection.
Intricate examples of complex lens making were found bearing Zeiss code marks indicating production after November 1944, even though the need for such sophistication and refinement on one product in a nation beset by lack of raw materials and manpower could be questioned. In Company Sevens collection for example we have a finely crafted hand held Zeiss 7x 50 mm binocular with very sophisticated optics marked “rln”, two custom made sets of filters, finely sewn leather case with straps and eyepiece rain guard engraved “Benutzer” (user) that was made at a time while many other Zeiss hand held military binoculars made were being shipped with painted prism housings instead of the pebble grain exteriors, and with no accessories. The Benutzer rain guard covers the eyepieces and offers protection against dirt or rain and water spray at sea; the personalization of the cover may have applied to a particular user or position (watch station for example) and is not necessarily indicative of having been made for some otherwise notable person.
The Downfall And Breakup Of Germany, And Of Carl Zeiss Jena:
Allied Bombing Campaign: in September 1939 the German Wehrmacht (military) commenced the strategy of indiscriminate bombing of civilian population centers* with those in Poland first experiencing this from the air by the Luftwaffe (Air Force), and from ground Heer (Army) artillery. On the western front the Luftwaffe attacks initially targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance. In the early periods during the war allied air attacks too targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance, some of these by Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command actually struck targets in Germany as early as in March 1940, though with largely symbolic results.
* We argue terror bombing was pioneered by the Luftwaffe “Legion Condor” commencing in 1937, this during the Spanish Civil War that brought the Nationalists under Francisco Franco to power.
After the fall of France in June 1940 the United Kingdom was left largely alone to stand against Nazi Germany. The RAF Fighter Command was increasingly put on the defense; during the Battle of Britain they relied on “the few” to stand against the Luftwaffe. This and the U-Boat war too were strangling the United Kingdom when Germany changed their priorities in what became known as “The Blitz” that commenced on 7 September of 1940, directing bombings by the Luftwaffe against industrial areas of London (Unternehmen Loge) and of other industrial cities too. The following months saw these raids expand their reach to purposefully target civilian populations centers with the thought of destroying morale and impacting wartime production. However, the Luftwaffe had not (and would never) develop suitable long range bomber aircraft and escorts in the numbers necessary to effectively bomb distant large target areas. Given the distances Luftwaffe escort fighter aircraft had to fly and the home ground advantage of those in the RAF, the Luftwaffe paid dearly for comparatively little results. By 1942 the British RAF too launched air raids that purposefully targeted civilians of German cities.
Bombings Affecting Zeiss Facilities: after Nazi Germany declared war on the United States the major German cities were bombed by medium and heavy bombers of the Allies, increasingly at will, with some raids specifically targeting Zeiss facilities. The city of Stuttgart for example was targeted in a series of fifty-three allied air raids that commenced 25 August 1940 and continued through the course of the war; the worst raids in 1944 obliterated the central district while the Contessa factory in the Henslack district suffered only minor damage.
Jena had remained an important University city, a center of science, and because of the Carl Zeiss works and Schott AG it was an important industrial site involved in production for the Nazi Armaments Ministry. The Konzentrationslager Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp) established one of their sub-camps in the northern suburbs of Jena, this housed (figuratively speaking) some 1,000 prisoners assigned to work for the Löbstedter Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk (Reichs road repair shop, or RAW), and later in 1944 these prisoners were also made available for repair of Deutsche Reichsbahn (German railroad). In addition to defense in the air by Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, Jena would over time build shelters and become defended by antiaircraft (flak) batteries, barrage balloons, and smoke generating equipment.
On the evening of 16 August 1940 four bombs were dropped by the Royal Air Force on the Gelände des Saalbahnhofs (railway station) of Jena; while the intent may have been to disable the facility the actual damage was more symbolic of what might be to come rather than significant.
As early as in April 1942 the city of Jena appeared on a list prepared by the British Bomber Command for the British War Cabinet of possible targets to be targeted for incendiary bombing, and by November that year the list had grown to include some fifty-eight cities. About one third of a typical R.A.F. bomb loading were magnesium or phosphorus incendiary bombs, the remainder being GP (General Purpose) bombs. However, the devastation caused by the purposeful incendiary bombings of Lübeck in 1942, Hamburg in 1943, and Dresden in 1945 would not be visited upon Jena.
On 27 May 1943 the R.A.F. visited again with fourteen low-flying de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito attack aircraft that dropped twenty-four 500 lb. bombs, about half of these incorporated delayed action fusing. The city sustained 12 dead and 56 wounded, while the damage was significant owing to the resultant fires. The raid no doubt impacted the psyche of the citizenry to some degree, and damaged the facilities at Zeiss. The R.A.F. lost three aircraft. The Royal Air Force did not bomb Jena again until three of their aircraft dropped twelve bombs on the city center and southern areas on the evening of 10 March 1945, and again on the evening of 15 March, both instances producing only minimal damage.
Jena was never designated by the U.S. Air Force as a Primary Target. However, on 8 February 1945 Jena was approved as an alternative Industrial Secondary Target, not so much for its overall value to the war effort but likely because other targets were either already effectively bombed or overrun by allied forces. So Jena was bombed by the U.S. Eighth Air Force several times late in the war, each time with increasing severity.
Mouse over to see an overlayed photo taken during an air raid in March 1945 depicting some of the bombing pattern centered just to the west of the Saale River and extending up into the railway yards (269,996 bytes). Photo by U.S. Eighth Air Force.
Click on the image to see enlarged view of Jena overlayed with the photo taken during an air raid in March 1945 (478,560 bytes).
Mouse over to see an overlayed photo taken during an air raid in March 1945 depicting some of the bombing pattern centered just to the west of the Saale River and extending up into the railway yards (269,996 bytes). Photo by U.S. Eighth Air Force.
Click on the image to see enlarged view of Jena overlayed with the photo taken during an air raid in March 1945 (478,560 bytes).
Luftwaffe losses this day over Germany amounted to a total of 41 aircraft destroyed, 3 likely damaged beyond repair, and 19 missing; these losses included 3 Me 262 aircraft. The U.S.A.F. total losses amounted to 6 bombers and 10 fighters are lost.
Jena in March 1945 was a transit center with people coming in and out, and with fluctuating numbers of refugees and forced laborers too so it is likely the exact number of casualties on the ground during these air raids will ever be known.
A memorial was established at the Rathausgasse of Jena, and here every 19th of March the dead of that bombing raid are remembered with a wreath. To this day this is a difficult commemoration because many citizens see that event, and the postwar partition of Germany too, as part of what resulted from the actions of the Nazi party. In Jena too there had been Nazi era perpetrators, who as one publication explained “were guilty of the exclusion, persecution and murder of many people”. Another memorial the “Stele zur Judenverfolgung und KZ-Zwangsarbeit” in Jena was established at the Löbstedter Straße 56, this commemorates prewar Jewish residents who were interned at the behest of the Jena Mayor near the site, and this also marks the site of the satellite camp Buchenwald eichsbahnausbesserungswerk (RAW) sub-camp in Jena.
There is evidence that the disruptions of raw materials and transport were having some chain reaction effect at Zeiss facilities, and those who depended on products coming from Jena. In March 1945 the completion and delivery to the military of several new “Jagdtiger” (Hunting Tiger) tanks were being held up by the late delivery of the special shock resistant, precision sight components from Carl Zeiss Jena. The heaviest operational tank of the war, these tanks are armed with a high velocity long range 128mm gun, and armor so thick and well engineered that they could resist almost anything that ground forces or opposing armor could shoot at them. Some allied ground troops can thank the air forces for sparing them from more encounters with these opponents.
Towards the end of the war in Europe one of the last decisions made in the selection of targets for the allied air forces was whether to bomb Schweinfurt, known for its ball bearing production and an October 1943 bombing campaign that resulted in tragic losses for the U.S. Army Air Forces and the German Luftwaffe, or to bomb Jena with its Zeiss and Jena works. Schweinfurt was selected even though by then more than 35% of its production from the five factories there had been dispersed to other facilities.
Advance to Jena, Then Capture, Then Handover: on 2 April 1945 elements of the 90th Infantry forces of the U.S. Third Army under Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. (promoted to General on 14 April 1945) came upon the Kaiseroda salt mine near Merkers (a few miles inside the border of Thuringia). The mine was cleared on 4 April by a patrol of Company I, of the 3rd Battalion, 358th Infantry. This was found to house currency (including 98 million French francs, 2.7 billion Reichsmarks) and gold and coin including the entire gold reserves in 550 bags each of 55 to 81 lbs. totaling nearly 250 tons from the Reichsbank in Berlin (including 711 bags each filled with $25,000 in U.S. $20 gold coins), and silent testament to victims of the Nazis: stacks of valuables taken from those at the death camps (jewelry - wedding rings, watch cases, gold-filled glasses, teeth with gold and silver fillings, etc.), 400 tons of art from Germany and works plundered from conquered nations, dozens of complex microscopes and other optical instruments made by Zeiss and others. The entire 712th tank Battalion and the 357th Infantry regiment were also diverted to guard the mine in preparation for removal of the items to the Reichsbank building in Frankfurt.
In possibly the only humorous aside to this tragedy was that on the morning of 12 April General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, General Omar Bradley, Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. and Major General Manton Eddy took the elevator ride 1,600 feet down into the shaft. When the elevator doors opened at the bottom of the shaft a lowly Private on guard duty stumbled while rising to salute, and in the tomblike stillness that soldier was heard to mutter “Jesus Christ!”
Right: General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, Gen. Omar Bradley, Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. study stolen artwork found at the Kaiseroda mine near Merkes (45,860 bytes).
Among the most disconcerting discoveries made by the unprepared allied soldiers were the concentration death and labor camps. On April 11 U.S. Third Army XX Corp forces overran Buchenwald near Weimar and Jena where some prisoners were employed as slave labor for the manufacture and assembly of components including military binoculars with Zeiss code marks. As the soldiers approached prisoners were observed throwing binoculars over the fence to the passing GIs. One of these cased binoculars, in amazingly good and complete condition, was gifted to Company Seven by the widow of a U.S. Soldier. This “liberation” Zeiss rln marked 7x 50 binocular remains exhibited in our museum amongst other World War II military issue Zeiss and Leitz binoculars. Some four decades after the war we could not be certain this binocular was made or assembled at Buchenwald or whether it had simply been issued to the staff of the camp, but the U.S. soldier was there and that is how the widow recollected his explanation of how he acquired the binocular.
The U.S. Third Army continued its advance supported by artillery and aircraft. Jena was shelled by U.S. artillery on 11 April 1945, this resulted in deaths of another 40 people there. Finally on 13 April the regimental combat team 80th Division cleared Jena where they found the Carl Zeiss factory complex. It had sustained what they described as “surprisingly little effective bomb damage”. By then the original large Planetarium test dome was gone, even though nearby on another roof top a small telescope observatory dome remained.
The Yalta agreement fashioned between the allies political leadership had determined that Germany would be partitioned into four areas, each under control of a major ally: England, France, Russia, and the U.S.A. All of the Zeiss facilities but the Contessa works in Stuttgart (then occupied by the French but designated for U.S. control) were in what would become the Russian zone of occupation. And so the U.S. military forces at Jena proceeded to evacuate manufacturing assets and documents over the course of several days.
At least some foreign laborers went with the U.S. Third Army to act in capacities such as “member-translator” of outfits such as the “Civic Affairs Team TA-4” traveling as far east as Vimperk (Winterburg), Czechia. With the rapid advances into areas being newly occupied the letter of the law or procedures were not always adhered to; just imagine running into a person in U.S. Army uniform carrying a carbine and bearing a Dutch passport!
However, with the end of the Third Reich in sight, the advancing allied forces would discover interesting products of German research and development efforts in many areas including optics. Among these was the “liberation” of two of the probable three or more “Doppelfernrohr” (double telescope) 20 + 40x 200 mm binoculars completed by Carl Zeiss Jena in 1944 or possibly 1945. Each refractive system incorporates 45 degree inclined wide-angle eyepieces providing 2.25 and 4.5 degrees actual field of view. Each binocular weighs about 460 lbs (209 kg), and with stand may have weighed about 1200 lbs! One instrument remains in the United Kingdom, the other (serial number 3) is property of the Smithsonian Institution Naval Historical Museum. After sitting in a warehouse for some fifty years, the U.S. example underwent a comprehensive restoration by Mr. Kevin Kuhne in Sandy Hook, Connecticut. Since there was no appreciable interest to display them the U.S.A., the restored example was loaned by the US people to the custody of the Wehrtechnischen Studiensammlung military museum in Koblenz, Germany where they are now on proper display.
The Americans compiled a list of people who were determined to have value to the allies, and who would be subject to evacuation to the West as the area was transferred to Soviet occupation. Among the most vital staff of Zeiss to be evacuated were: Professor Dr. Ing. Walther Bauersfeld (b. 1879, d. 1959) Scientific Head with the company since 1908, Dr. Ing. Heinz Kuppenbender, Professor Dr. Joos, Paul Henrichs, who with about 130 engineers and technicians were evacuated to western Germany occupied by allied forces to what would become the Federal Republic of Germany. These also included 41 employees from Schott, and some 200 from the University of Jena. American officials advised the evacuees (reportedly in an early version of “make them an offer they can not refuse”) that they would be moved to the American Zone of occupation. There are accounts that some went voluntarily while others were given no choice. U.S. Army trucks were assigned to move the families who were afforded only enough time to pack a suitcase. The 65 year old Frau Bauersfeld was allowed to take (as a last minute concession) one armchair for the long ride in the back of the truck. Months later, with the help of a neighbor and some luck one of Prof. Bauersfelds daughters moved from Jena the family Steinway piano on a railway car to Heidenheim. Zeiss Administrator Joos later went on to the United States.
Shortly afterwards, in compliance with the Yalta agreements, the U.S. military forces departed Jena and headed west. In June or early July the Soviet military forces occupied the remainder of what became East Germany (German Democratic Republic) including Jena.
Within as little a few weeks after the fighting concluded, some Zeiss facilities were back at work. The Contessa works at Stuttgart resumed production of Ikonta and Nettar film cameras. German military and civilian optics of the period remain among the most sought after “war trophies” taken home by occupying forces. To this day many people believe their grandfathers undocumented binoculars were the personal Zeiss field glasses of the famous Wehrmacht Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. We cannot count how many German Kriegsmarine tugboat or auxiliary binoculars are out there today being marketed as those employed by sailors of the highly admired U-Boat forces.
The Soviets ordered the dismantling of many German manufacturing facilities in their zones of occupation, and by 11 October 1945 the dismantling of manufacturing equipment at Carl Zeiss in Jena had commenced. By one year later the Soviets had evacuated much of the remaining technical and management staff, and about 92% of the Carl Zeiss Jena manufacturing facilities to the east and well into Russia. This became the basis for the development there of several optical companies that prosper to this day. Other German manufacturing assets were also confiscated under the reparations provisions and these gutted many factories, mostly in the Russian occupied zone. At Dresden, the Contax rangefinder camera manufacturing dies, parts and equipment along with some staff were transported to Kiev. In part the Russians, and some other allies too, wanted to emasculate Germany and gather whatever reparations they could against a Nazi Germany that had decimated Russias population (if less so than Stalin). Furthermore, the Russian well founded fear of possible further conflict with the western nations rendered relocating any production capability into a more defensible Soviet province a logical strategic step.
Resurrection - The Post World War II Zeiss Companies East And West:
The abrupt end of the war left manufacturers in Germany, as in the United States and elsewhere, sitting on hodgepodge stocks of military hardware, spare parts, and stocks of new parts awaiting assembly. Soon after the war elements of Carl Zeiss gradually returned to manufacturing. Initially their items were made for the civilian market, these tended to be items they had manufactured prior to the war that could be afforded by occupying soldiers for example. In time Zeiss would return to manufacturing for export and for military markets too. The initial post war production inventory coming out of Carl Zeiss Jena facilities commenced as early as late 1945 and included: photographic cameras, lenses, and binoculars.
In the case of binoculars for example, those produced soon after the war were basically military models with individual focus (8x 30, 7x 50, 10x 50, etc.) nearly identical to those made before May 1945 would have borne the simple armaments code mark “run”. The post war models were in fact identical other than their left side prism housing now bore the pre war Carl Zeiss Jena logo, and the consumer oriented models lacked any integrated measuring reticle. For the first year or two of production many of the binoculars assembled used existing wartime stocks of painted prism housings and objective tube barrels, instead of the pebble grain leather covering as had been typical of production models from before the war and through the later years of the war.
While Carl Zeiss Jena was reorganizing under Russian control the “Zeiss Stiftung von Jena” was established at Heidenheim, with the “Opton-Optische Werstatte Oberkochen GmbH” factory located at Oberkochen on the banks of the Kocher River near the city of Stuttgart in the State of Baden-Württemberg. The Schott Glass Works subsidiary was located at Mainz, the capital of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. The most important provisions of the organization are:
By 1947 the enterprise at Oberkochen was doing business as “Zeiss-Opton-Optische Werstatte Oberkochen GmbH”. Soon, the Hensoldt facilities at Wetzlar resumed production, while microscope production resumed at the Winkel factory at Göttingen, and eyeglass production in Aalen. On 3 March 1948 the transfer of Zeiss Ikon headquarters from Dresden to Stuttgart was formalized. In 1951 the Zeiss Ikon factory facility at Stuttgart would be about doubled in size to accommodate the headquarters and production operations.
Shortly after the war Carl Zeiss, Inc. in the United States resumed the import of products from Zeiss Jena and Zeiss Oberkochen. And by 1960 the U.S. based Zeiss company was again fully owned by Carl Zeiss of West Germany. Dr. Bauersfeld continued to work there until he passed away in 1959 at age 80!
While Jena had already resumed the manufacture of some products it was on 1 July 1948 that the East Germans, now independent of Carl Zeiss Oberkochen, formally reorganized the original factory in Jena as a state-owned corporation to be known as “V.E.B Carl Zeiss Jena” (peoples owned corporation) under Dr. Hugo Schrade. The reorganized Carl Zeiss Jena under the direction of the East German government gradually resumed production of microscopes, measuring instruments, astronomical telescopes, photographic lenses, military optics. By 1949 in Dresden cameras such as the Contax II single lens reflex with a new 42mm threaded mount, and camera lenses such as the “Sonnar” were in production with all internal and external air to glass surfaces being “T” anti-reflection coated. The occasional similarity of appearance, of design, and the interchange ability of Zeiss Jena and Oberkochen components such as components for microscopes, and cameras was more than by accident. For example, some binoculars marketed by Carl Zeiss Oberkochen (bearing the trademark “Optron”) were actually made by Carl Zeiss Jena.
As diplomatic relations between East and West were closing, both Zeiss companies sought out new sources. During the time up to about 1952 there were hopes for a German reunification and so the Zeiss counterparts actually worked to help each other recover to some degree. The hopes for reunification were dashed as the East German political leadership assumed firm control of all commercial enterprises; from now until reunification the Communist Party and its system of promotion by political achievement (which selected the top management) would determine the course of company policy.
By 1954 the Zeiss Jena works had reestablished their ability to produce world-class planetarium projectors, the first completed unit being delivered in 1954 to the Volgograd Planetarium in Russia.
One interesting experiment at diversification by Jena occurred in the mid 1950s; Carl Zeiss Jena produced four variants of a model two-cycle diesel engine (“Aktivist”) for hobbyist applications in model cars, planes, and boats! In 1956 Zeiss introduced the “Jena Review”, their own publication to highlight their accomplishments in a manner similar to the “Zeiss Information” published by the West. In another footnote, by 1956 Carl Zeiss Jena binocular production was moved from the Jena works nearby to Eisfeld, still in the State of Thuringia. Among new facilities were those opened in 1961 at Eisenberg near Jena for the manufacturing of synthetic optical crystals for use in the fabrication of optical components within microscopy, astronomy, photography, medical and laser technologies, and more. And by 1963 Jena was manufacturing numeric measuring systems for the precise measurement of angles and length.
In West Germany camera and camera lens production were underway at the “Contessa” camera factory in Stuttgart. In May 1950 at the Photokina camera show, Zeiss introduced their new “Contax IIa” 35mm rangefinder camera bearing the “Zeiss Ikon Stuttgart” mark.
By 1953 it could be argued that microsurgery was rendered possible with Zeiss Oberkochen surgical microscopes. In 1953 Oberkochen introduced a publication “Zeiss Information” to highlight the latest innovations at Zeiss. In 1954 the Oberkochen facility produced its first binocular: an innovative very compact 8x30mm Porro Prism model made possible in part by their development of the air spaced objective. In 1958 Zeiss Oberkochen introduced an improved wide angle eyepiece designed by Horst Kohler and Helmut Knutti; designated by the binocular model designation suffix “B” (for Brillentrager spectacle wearer) this allowed persons wearing prescription spectacles or sunglasses to see the field of view with none or little vignetting. Also in 1956 they developed a new flexible gasket system for their central focus binoculars which substantially improved the sealing of the interior optics against dust, dew, light rain. Beginning in 1962 space missions are flown with Zeiss optics; Jena providing for Russia, and Oberkochen the West. And now the unified Carl Zeiss continues to do so to this very day.
By 1954, Carl Zeiss Oberkochen had acquired a majority stock holding in Hensoldt. By 1964 Zeiss of West Germany had moved all binocular production to its Hensoldt subsidiary works in Wetzlar. Then in 1968 Hensoldt became a fully owned member of the Carl Zeiss Oberkochen group. To this day, binoculars and riflescopes made there bear either the Zeiss or Hensoldt trademarks - the Hensoldt trademarked products being offered primarily for the military and law enforcement markets.
Binocular innovation by Carl Zeiss at Oberkochen and Wetzlar continued with the introduction of an even more compact in line Schmidt (or Pechan) prism design for binoculars in 1964 bearing the trademarked “Dialyt” designation. While Zeiss had a tradition of offering “theater glasses” (low magnification, compact binoculars for use at concerts, etc.) dating back to before World War I, it was in the early 1960s that Zeiss introduced high quality pocket size “compact binoculars”, that could fit easily in to a shirt pocket; the first being an 8x20mm model introduced in 1969.
Above: Postage Stamp issued by DDR celebrating Carl Zeiss Jena accomplishments from 1846 to 1971.
Above: the bold name logo employed by Zeiss West Germany products from about 1972 until 1991.
Zeiss Jena maintained an office in New York City, with distribution of microscopes (and incidentally - planetarium instruments) through a private company in the mid U.S., binoculars and microscopes through a company in Pennsylvania, and surveying instruments such as Theodolites through another firm in Florida. These firms were completely independent of one another.
Zeiss West Germany continued to develop precise electro-optical equipment for distance and height measurements that found applications in sports events; their Recording Electronic Tachemeter measuring systems and their variants were used at international sports since 1970 events including the Olympic Games held in Munich in 1972 and those in Montreal in 1976.
In 1976 the West German Chancellor Schmidt presented the Carl Zeiss Oberkochen Mark IV Planetarium projector to the National Air and Space Museum “Einstein Planetarium” in Washington, D.C.. Among the invited guests were Ruth Van Hilst b. Bauersfeld daughter of the former head developer of Zeiss planetarium instruments. The Zeiss instrument remains one of the highlights at the most visited attraction in the United States.
Zeiss West Germany continued to set the world standards for microscopy in many areas. In 1973 Carl Zeiss West Germany announced the first high precision UMM 500 3D coordinate measuring machine. In 1976 Zeiss announced the first microscopes specifically designed for the examination of living cells, these were the IM 35 and ICM 405. In 1982 Carl Zeiss West Germany announced the worlds first LSM Laser Scan Microscope - the quantum leap in microscopy. And then in 1984 a new era in electron microscopy was introduced, the EM 902 with energy filter.
In 1995 the NASA space probe “Galileo” reached Jupiter and then on July 13 it dispatched a probe into Jupiters atmosphere. A “Helium Abundance Detector” interferometer on the probe made by Zeiss at Oberkochen also contributed to the success of the effort during the 75 minute descent. Delivered by Zeiss in 1984, this was the first instrument in space made by Zeiss at Oberkochen, and so far is the farthest that Zeiss has traveled from Earth.
All the while Carl Zeiss Jena continued to make innovative products including electro-optical equipment for distance and height measurements in sports events including the Olympic Games of Moscow in 1980, Los Angeles in 1984, and Seoul in 1988. Also developed was the “Cosmorama” computer controlled planetarium projector in 1984, and later the “Fundus” camera and their workstations for ophthalmology. The value of the western currencies figured prominently in what success the eastern products enjoyed in the west.
In 1988 Zeiss Oberkochen announced the “P-Coatings” (invented by Adolf Weyauch); a “phase correcting coating” applied to a surface of roof prisms. This corrected the phase shifts as light passes through the system resulting in a sharper and clearer image. This and other innovations continued culminating with the introduction in 1990 of the “Design Selection” series of compact binoculars. And also in 1990 the 20x60 S - the worlds first hand-held, mechanically stabilized binocular (this too was invented by Adolf Weyauch).
On June 1, 1990 the “ROSAT” X-ray satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral; at the time it featured the worlds smoothest mirrors and was the largest X-ray telescope ever made (83.4cm aperture); it conducted the first X-ray survey of all the skies.
While in 1986, Carl Zeiss Jena resumed production of cameras.
Carl Zeiss West Germany grew to become the worlds largest optics research and development firm with marketing organizations in at least 28 Western countries. It features state of the art microscopes, several of the worlds largest or most complicated telescopes, specialized scientific instruments, measuring instruments, military optics (including submarine periscopes), spectacle frames and lenses, rifle scopes, photographic lenses, cameras (“Contax” made under license by Yashica/Kyocera) and binoculars.
In 1990 Carl Zeiss Oberkochen introduced the “20x60 S” binocular; this employed a Zeiss developed, revolutionary “cardanic” dampened stabilization mechanism that does not rely on electronic or hydraulic mechanisms. The 20x60 S allows a person to hand hold the binocular with such apparent steadiness by the reduction of vibration that one has the sense of looking though a much lower magnification binocular of 4x or so! The 20x60 development has earned for Carl Zeiss the “R&D Magazine” award for developing one of the 100 most important technical innovations of 1992.
Carl Zeiss Jena continued to rely on a far less sophisticated network of independent agents. The director of Carl Zeiss West Germany was quoted in a “Wall Street Journal” newspaper interview as stating that western style marketing “simply doesnt exist” in the east, “everything that is produced is dictated by the plan”. Yet by 1989 Carl Zeiss Jena was the largest of East Germanys 120 state owned corporations (Kombinate). However, Zeiss employees in the east worked an average of six (6) more hours per week at less than half the salary of a western worker. The eastern technology was falling behind the west, now being relatively primitive and too inefficient to compete in a modern economy. While the western facilities were more automated, energy efficient, and more ecologically sound in terms of worker conditions and production of waste materials. In too few areas the wests relatively higher labor costs and demands were a handicap in competition against the east, although after the reunification Germany is exporting jobs to third world economies (such as the U.S.A.).
Germany And Some Of Zeiss Reunified:
The German reunification of 1990 was symbolically realized with the literal collapse of the Berlin Wall, and the practical fall of Communism. But while the West German economy was robust, the East German economy was so stagnant that the transition has been turbulent and fraught with uncertainty for displaced workers. At the time of the reunification Carl Zeiss Oberkochen had a logical desire to acquire only the best technical and most historic assets of the East German Zeiss firm. Zeiss Oberkochen then had approximately 31,700 employees who were generating $2.18 billion in sales. Management at Oberkochen did not wish to acquire all the Carl Zeiss Jena liabilities (as most West German firms were hesitant to do) such as the staff and pension expenses for a grossly overstaffed (totaling about 70,000) and under productive (sales of about $390 million) work force. Furthermore, Oberkochen wished to avoid manufacturing and personnel redundancies, and so an initial merger plan was not accepted by management at the Carl Zeiss Jena firm.
Since shortly after World War II Zeiss Oberkochen products bore the trademark “ZEISS West Germany”. Within weeks after the reunification of 1990 new Zeiss letterhead and products bore the trademark “ZEISS Germany”.
Above: the logo with medium blue background employed by a unified Zeiss company for products made after 1991.
Initially the author of this article was happy at the thought of a reunited Germany, but my contacts with those in the East revealed a sense of foreboding. Soon after the first representatives from the former West Germany started to visit Jena it became clear they were there only to pick and choose what assets they might wish to acquire. A number of the employees then at Jena expressed their concern and some showed outright resentment. This may have had something to do with a feeling that the East had lost a war of sorts, or of one culture against another. Or more likely the fear of the apparently affluent westerners coming to determine the futures of their eastern neighbors.
A sense of gloom and foreboding was strikingly conveyed by the answer from one Jena employee to the question:
to which came this reply from a Jena employee who was given to understatement:
“Oh yes, we see their Mercedes in the parking lot”.
When economic realities finally settled in at a now near bankrupt Carl Zeiss Jena (and other eastern manufacturers across a united Germany), negotiations were concluded by June of 1991 with Oberkochen to acquire only certain selected assets including the original facilities Jena. However, only a little more than 10% of Jenas peak 70,000 person labor force of 1989 (down to about 27,000 in May 1991) would be incorporated into Zeiss Oberkochen. And even then contrary to optimistic plans, the remaining labor force would be reduced even further over the next few years.
For an example in July of 1991 the German privatization authorities concluded the purchase of the Carl Zeiss Jena V.E.B. binocular and riflescope manufacturing works at Eisfeld by Docter-Optic GmbH of Wetzlar. Eisfeld was not acquired by Zeiss Oberkochen as the Eisfeld manufacturing techniques were considered primitive and inefficient by Oberkochen standards; Oberkochen already having an efficient binocular plant at Wetzlar. It could be argued that Zeiss Oberkochen lost an opportunity to retain some of the best Porro prism designs made such as the Zeiss Jena “Nobilem”. The passing of Eisfeld ended a Zeiss tradition of almost 100 years of making 80mm large binocular series, the last being the “Aspectem” series a relatively new model of which maybe 100 to 200 units were made. One new Carl Zeiss Jena “Aspectem” 25x to 50x Zoom 80mm model was retired for exhibit at Company Sevens museum, though possibly the best 80mm ever offered by Zeiss there was still potential remaining for improvements. And Oberkochen passed on other innovations produced by notable Jena employees such as Dr. August Sonnefeld.
The Eisenberg facility continued with the development and growth of synthetic crystals to support its own products. By 1991 Jena offered at least 19 different materials grown from melts and solutions, having made something on the order of 250 tons of materials in its recent 30 years of production. One of the most important products for the advanced amateur and institutional astronomy markets to come of this was the growth of high quality Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) crystals from Stockbarger melts which made possible the “APQ” Apochromatic objectives that Jena offered for sale in 105mm, 130mm and 150mm apertures; a 206mm f8 “APQ” telescope was advertised but Zeiss was never able to complete a single instrument before the small telescope manufacturing group at Jena was cut back further. And at least one 80mm x 500mm “APQ” objective was made, possibly for use in terrestrial and compact astronomical telescopes, and in the large binoculars previously manufactured at the Eisfeld plant.
Since the reunification, the groups involved with research and development, and the growth of synthetic crystals and fluorides, and marketing have been incorporated in Eisenberg plant (established near Jena in 1961) as part of the “Optics Division”. Although a large marketing force for other Zeiss groups including consumer optics remains at Aalen. The groups from Oberkochen and Jena involved in the design and manufacture of precise height and distance measuring devices such as those employed at Olympic Games continue under the name “Zeiss Optics”.
The group at the Jena works who were involved in production of astronomical telescopes was retained, while the planetarium production team at Oberkochen was moved to and incorporated with existing Jena facilities. The production of large, observatory telescopes continued at Jena with the first joint Zeiss telescope project being a contact signed in November of 1991 to produce a 1 meter telescope (the 13th instrument of the design made at Jena since the first one made in 1971) with control system and a 12.5 meter dome for the European Space Agency. The Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH Division of Astronomical Instruments worked with the Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen APS Division.
Although the production of relatively small achromatic and apochromatic refractor telescopes of up to 15cm, and catadioptic systems of up to 18cm, all with a variety of accessories at Jena would continue until 1994 when it was realized that Zeiss could not compete in the world market; the Zeiss “APQ” refractor telescopes optics were among the finest in the world but the inability to Zeiss to adapt these products promptly to the realities of a free marketplace assured their demise.
In mid April of 1992 at the “Opto 92” European optoelectrics symposium in Paris, the optical metrology departments of Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen and Carl Zeiss Jena displayed their products as a unified Zeiss for the first time. Also in 1992 the publication “Zeiss Information” and the “Jena Review” were combined to produce the publication: “Zeiss Information with Jena Review” bearing the copyright logo and “Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, and Carl Zeiss Jena, GmbH, Jena”. Also in 1992 the “Reta-Sport A” measuring instruments was announced brining in a new generation of distance measuring instruments geared especially to sporting events such as those held at the Olympic Games.
In the meantime, research and development continued to show results. In 1994 Zeiss announced navigated microsurgery with MKM which permits more accurate and gentler brain surgery with an “electronic pilot”. In 1994 Zeiss also announced the “Night Owl” series binoculars in 7x45B, 8x56B, and 10x56B. These represented a new level of technological achievement. Featuring wider angle views than predecessors, a new “super achromatic” objective lens, “Phase Corrected” Abbe-Koenig prisms, light transmission of at least 91%, and nitrogen filled composite housings reinforced with fiberglass to assure high endurance. In September 1994 Zeiss announced the first “Contax” 35mm rangefinder camera with interchangeable lenses made since 1959; the “G1” features include auto focus with any of four optional lenses, TTL metering, automatic film advance of up to 2 frames per second, and a luxurious titanium body.
Zeiss Sales Volume and Employees Worldwide Trend from 1989/90 to 1994/95
For 1995, the tradition of innovation continued with the introduction by Zeiss of the “Axiophot 2”, the worlds first computer controlled photomicroscope.
In May 1995 the high-tech companies Leica in St. Gallen (Switzerland), and Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen (Germany) signed a letter of intent to pool their electron microscopy resources in an independent joint venture. The focus of the new company is the onward development, manufacture, sales and service of scanning and transmission electron microscopes.
The shareholders agreement for the founding of the new joint venture “LEO Electron Microscopy Ltd.” (LEO) was formally signed on September 12, 1995, ahead of the originally envisaged schedule. LEO officially commenced trading on October 2, 1995 following the approval of the German antitrust authorities (Bundeskartellamt, Berlin). The contract incorporating the new company was signed at the German Society of Electron Microscopy annual meeting in Leipzig by the CEOs of the parties, Dr. Peter Grassmann (Carl Zeiss) and Dr. Markus Rauh (Leica). A parallel announcement of the founding of the new company was made at the EMAG conference held at the University of Birmingham.
Leica and Carl Zeiss each hold a 50% share in LEO, with operating subsidiaries in the UK, Germany, France and the USA. Dr. Peter Grassmann, CEO Carl Zeiss was nominated Chairman of the Board of the new company; Raghuvir Kalbag, a UK national, Chief Executive Officer. R. Kalbag comes to the company from the international headquarters of Leica in St. Gallen where he is a Member of the Corporate Management, and brings with him experience in the field of electron microscopy going back to 1976. They were supported by a management team drawn primarily from Carl Zeiss and Leica. Worldwide representation is provided through the existing Leica and Carl Zeiss sales channels and a network of independent dealers.
The existing facilities in Cambridge and Oberkochen for R&D, production, marketing and service of electron microscopes would be carried over into the new company. This decision maintains the long history of expertise and knowledge in transmission and scanning electron microscopes in the two sites where these technologies were pioneered. It was envisaged that LEO will employ about 350 people world-wide, including those in the distribution and service networks, with a turnover of over 50 million pounds sterling.
Carl Zeiss dissolved their amateur telescope division located at Jena in the Fall of 1995.
By 1996 Carl Zeiss indicated an organization of five groups: Microscopy, Medical Systems, Consumer Optics, Industrial Metrology, and Opto-electronic Systems.
In 1996 Zeiss announced new lens systems for semiconductor production to permit future fabrication of 256 megabyte DRAM memory chips, and the “SILEX” experiment with Zeiss telescopes for the testing of optical telecommunication in space.
A number of events and products commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen and Schott Glasswerke, Mainz). Several of these events were noted at our “Current Zeiss News” Internet Site page. Also, Carl Zeiss announced a limited edition binocular specially produced to commemorate the 150th anniversary. The binocular chosen is possibly the most successful, and popular of the Zeiss Dialyt series. Only 1,000 Zeiss 10 x 40 B ClassiC Gold binoculars will be made. Finished in the finest grade of Nappa Leather in brown, with the serialized current ZEISS logo in 18 carat gold, the eyepiece and objective rings in 18 carat gold plate, in a deluxe brown leather case with snap closure, and a personalized wood presentation box bearing the owners name for $3,395.00.
With the high living and salary standards of the West German economy, and the pressures on that economy to subsidize and modernize the former East Germany, and need to meet the competition from abroad (most notably from Japan, and the United States), there has never been so many challenges to the once dominant Carl Zeiss firm. In fact 1996 finally showed a profit for the unified Zeiss thereby indicating a good measure of recovery from the impact of unification.
In April of 1997 the Astro-Physics Company, Baader Planetarium, and Company Seven announced the availability of a limited quantity of new production Carl Zeiss “Abbe Orthoscopic” oculars for astronomical telescopes. This marked the first production of such accessories since when Zeiss dissolved their amateur telescope division in the Fall of 1995.
There is little doubt that Zeiss will continue their traditions of excellence and innovation. Today the Carl Zeiss trademark remains a symbol of traditional values and innovation in optics technology.
Above: Anniversary Logo, and Zeiss logo employed since about year 2000.
Summary Of Zeiss Trademarks: below is a collection of logos from articles and literature in the collection of Company Seven. These are the major logos and trade names that identified the companies, or some subsidiaries. This is not including all trade names (Contax, Contessa, etc.) or variants of the main trademark (Carl Zeiss London, etc.) that Zeiss companies employed. Those we include are, from top to bottom:
The author of this article (Martin Cohen of Company Seven) can not accept credit for much more than compiling the information in this paper, as credit for the content actually better placed with a variety of sources of knowledge and enthusiasm. Among these are the contributors to the Zeiss Historica Society journal (most notably by Larry Gubas, Nicholas Grossman, Wolfgang Pfeiffer, William Stone, Joachim Arnz, Charles Barringer, Thomas Schreiner, Maurice Zubatkin, Hans-Jurgen-Kuc, and many other fine authors) and other publications geared to enthusiasts and historians, U.S. military records, and ultimately to the current and former employees of the Carl Zeiss organizations including Dr. Wolfgang Wimmer the Director of Carl Zeiss Archives, Lucas VanHilst, and their families.
Corrections or additions are invited. The writer also wishes to clarify that this by no means a comprehensive discussion, and that many individuals deserving credit for innovation and administrative accomplishments at Zeiss are worthy of mention.
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